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2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 9902 words || 
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1. Bishin, Benjamin. "Heterogeneity and Representation Reconsidered: Do Subconstituencies explain the Curious Relationship between Heterogeneity and Representation?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p211857_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Are legislators from diverse states and districts less representative than those from homogeneous ones? Research examining the impact of diversity on legislative responsiveness finds that they are (Bailey and Brady 1998; Bishin, Dow and Adams 2006). To date, however, all such studies conceptualize responsiveness using the Demand Input Model which holds that politicians respond to the average citizen’s preferences. Applying the Subconstituency Politics Theory, this chapter provides an alternative explanation for past results holding that failure to accurately conceptualize responsiveness leads to measurement error in estimates of district preferences. Accounting for subconstituencies leads to results that suggest that there is little difference in responsiveness across districts—in both types of districts politicians propound the views of these active intense constituents.

2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Fisk, Calley. "Heterogeneity in Social Networks: Does Racial Heterogeneity Impact Political Attitudes?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1251860_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Explanations for the impact of social networks on individual political attitudes suggest that heterogeneous networks can influence attitudes by increasing one’s access to more diverse information. However, much of this work focuses on heterogeneity of political orientations rather than other forms of heterogeneity within networks, such as race. Building on research suggesting that Whites often differ from Non-Whites in their political beliefs, the present study examines whether the racial heterogeneity of an individual’s social networks affects his or her views toward racial policies as measured by whether the government is spending enough to improve the conditions of Blacks in the United States. Additionally, the study tests the moderating effect of race on this relationship. Using the 1985 and 2004 waves of data from the General Social Survey (GSS), results show that in 1985 men in heterogeneous networks were more likely to believe the government was spending too little on improving conditions for Blacks and in 2004 women in heterogeneous networks were more likely to believe that the government was spending too little on improving conditions for Blacks. Race did not moderate these relationships. Overall, this study highlights the need for future research assessing social networks at the national level.

2007 - American Sociological Association Pages: 43 pages || Words: 11086 words || 
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3. Shepherd, Hana. and DiMaggio, Paul. "Can Exploring Schematic Heterogeneity in Attitude Data Help Adjudicate Debates about White Americans’ Racial Attitudes?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p184816_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Students of white Americans’ attitudes towards African-Americans have argued about the meanings of the former’s responses to attitude surveys, especially about whether certain responses are socially appropriate displacements of conventional racism or, instead, reflections of political, moral, or economic beliefs independent of racial attitudes. We argue that such attitudes cannot be assessed one at a time, but instead must be viewed as related to schemata or associational networks within which each element derives its meaning from other elements with which it is associated. We further argue that interpreting survey responses requires the analyst to make inferences about the network of attitudes within which they are embedded; that schematic heterogeneity is typical of survey populations; and that understanding racial attitudes requires a partitioning of respondent samples into subsets of schematically similar agents.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 12214 words || 
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4. Scheufele, Dietram., Nisbet, Matthew., Brossard, Dominique. and Nisbet, Erik. "Social structure and citizenship: Examining the impacts of social setting, network heterogeneity, and informational variables on political participation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112530_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this study, we develop a model of the interplay between socio-structural determinants of an individual?s discussion behavior, such as the setting of primary discussion networks (work, church and volunteer groups) and the nature of discussion (i.e., the level of exposure to non-likeminded ideas), and individual-level outcomes, such as hard news media use, political knowledge, and participation in political processes. In doing so, we synthesize many of the different and sometimes competing models that political communication scholars have used to examine the link between more macroscopic sociological variables and the individual-level behaviors that political scientists often focus on.

Data to test our theoretical model come from a national telephone survey conducted in October and November 2002. Our analysis showed that the social setting in which citizens discuss politics is an important antecedent of political participation. Discussion networks as part of volunteer groups, for example, indeed serve as important networks of recruitment. In other words, discussing politics frequently in this setting is positively and directly linked to political activity. The impact of conversational networks in church and work settings on participation, however, is only indirect. In fact, our data show that the impact of church and work networks on political participation is to a significant degree mediated by the different viewpoints that individuals are exposed to when they discuss politics in these settings.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 6848 words || 
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5. Hardy, Bruce. "Political Discussion and Democratic Citizenship: Comparing Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Political Discussion as Promoters of Active Citizenry" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p11888_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Political communication scholars have put forward contrasting theories and produced contradictory evidence in attempts to explain the impact of heterogeneity of political discussion on active citizenship. However, most of these studies examined the effects of heterogeneous discussion independently of homogenous discussion. This is overly simplistic, of course, given that most citizens are likely to be mobilized through discussion with both likeminded and non-likeminded discussion partners. This study examines the opposing claims on the civic consequences of heterogeneous political discussion empirically and directly compares the influence of heterogeneous and homogeneous political discussion on indicators of active citizenship. Overall, two general findings emerged. First, heterogeneous political discussion does encourage democratic citizenship and, second, heterogeneous political discussion and homogeneous political discussion have different effects on indicators of active citizenship.

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