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2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 734 words || 
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1. Ikoma, Sakiko. "Homework as critical socio-cultural practice: a cross-national analysis of homework, instructional practice, teaching conditions, and student achievement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p990467_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Homework should be a useful tool for students to review what they learned in school and to further develop their knowledge and skills. If it is appropriately assigned, homework can be beneficial (Cooper, et al., 2006). However, as previous research has shown, homework can easily become a burden for students (Bennett & Kalish, 2006; Corno, 1996; Kohn, 2006). We tend to assume that teachers appropriately assign homework to their students, and that they learn appropriately what their teachers expect them to learn. Yet, what if students find themselves trapped in a maze of homework because their teachers assign too much or too less homework or because they do not have clear instructions and/or any useful feedback from their teachers?

Despite the fact that homework represents a major nexus between teacher-student interactions and parent-child interactions, homework practice has typically been regarded as merely an “extension” of regular teaching practices. Nonetheless, much research on homework has heavily focused on the direct linkage of homework and achievement and identified rather mixed findings of the effects of homework on student achievement (Cooper, 1989; Cooper et al., 2006; Horsley & Walker, 2013; Trautwein, 2007). Not only is there little focus on the relationship between teacher quality and their homework management, but also cross-national analysis on homework is still in a developing phase. Homework is indeed is closely related to teachers’ core classroom practices and has become ubiquitous in public education worldwide. Yet, cross-nationally different norms in teaching and learning still exist, which also uniquely contours each nation’s education system.

Based on Harris Cooper’s conceptual framework on homework research (e.g. Cooper, 2006), this study specifically sheds light on cross-national comparison of teachers’ homework practice as a critical factor that characterizes cultures of teaching and learning. Analyzing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, it explores the extent that national contexts shape culture of teaching and how it influences student achievement through homework practices. Two main research questions are as follows:

(1) How much variation in homework practices can be explained by cross-national difference in teacher instructional practices after controlling for teacher working conditions and backgrounds?
(2) How is then the relationship between homework practices and student achievement after controlling for student backgrounds?

This study utilizes an international large-scale dataset, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 and focuses on the 8th-grade students and their math teachers in 45 countries. In TIMSS 2011, students were sampled by the two-stage random sample design (Joncas & Foy, 2011). That is, schools were selected at the first stage and one or more intact classes of students selected from each of the sampled schools at the second stage. Teachers of those students then participated in the study. Therefore, it should be notified that the teachers were not necessarily randomly sampled.

In order to capture cross-national differences, this study employs Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). In response to the first question, it investigates how teachers’ homework practices are related to the teacher-level characteristics—instructional practices, working conditions, and backgrounds—and how much between-nation variation of the dependent variable can be explained by two Hofstede’s (2011) national-level indicators—Individualism and Power Distance indices—after controlling Government expenditure per student as percentage of GDP per capita (Level 2). Individualism Index refers to how much a given country is individualistic, and Power Distance Index refers to how much a given country is tolerance for authoritarianism. In response to the second question, it explores the relationship between homework practices and student achievement controlling for student backgrounds including the frequency of parental help on their homework.

As Corno (1996) asserts, homework is indeed “extremely complicated” (p.27). The complexity arises from the fact that many factors affect the amount, intensity and emotional reaction to homework. Although it is difficult to disentangle all factors across a wide array of nations, previous work has shown that while some patterns are nation-specific, others are found in the vast majority of nations surveyed (Dettmers, Trautwein et al. 2009; Trautwein, Niggli et al., 2009). Preliminary analysis thus far shows some interesting but nonetheless mixed results on the relationship between various teacher characteristics and their homework management. It is anticipated that some variation is subject to cultural differences of homework management across those countries. This study contributes not only to buffering the current disconnection between homework research and policies in broader contexts, but also to our in-depth understanding of issues surrounding homework and instructional practices in the global contexts.

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Schrubbe, Alexis. "“They Leave Us The Homework But They Don’t Give Us No Device”: Parents, the Homework Gap, and Urban Hotspot Lending Programs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1368010_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores a dynamic Hotspot lending program in a large urban library system initiated to alleviate the Homework Gap. This population is novel in digital divide research due to the fact that it consists entirely of parents of children without home broadband and represents parental experiences with educational expectations through technology use.

2015 - Eleventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 155 words || 
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3. Minichiello, Angela., Marx, Sherry., Hailey, Christine. and McNeill, Laurie. "Deconstructing Academic Integrity: Understanding the Use of Solutions by Engineering Undergraduates During Textbook-Based Homework Preparation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eleventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 20, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p990728_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite fifty years of research, academic dishonesty remains pervasive within higher education in general and engineering education in particular. However, while studies consistently report that engineering undergraduates “cheat” more frequently than students of other disciplines, the construct of cheating within this literature is broad and often variable. Moreover, recent studies examining engineering student and faculty perceptions of textbook solution use during homework preparation indicate that these groups may not agree on behaviours that constitute cheating. In this study, we employed qualitative inquiry and a postmodernist theoretical perspective to explore how variability in perceptions of academic integrity complicates an understanding of cheating within engineering. Specifically, we conducted semi-structured interviews with students and teaching staff of a 2nd year engineering course to explore how students use solutions during homework preparation. Findings suggest that student rationales for solutions use work to deconstruct the normative academic integrity/dishonesty binary while facilitating construction of engineering knowledge.

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