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2006 - American Political Science Association Words: unavailable || 
1. Howland, Todd. "Hot Air or Hot Methods: RFK's Support to Social Movements" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding

2006 - American Society of Criminology (ASC) Words: 168 words || 
2. Lawton, Brian. "Building a Better Hot Spot: Social Disorganization Theory and Hot Spot Identification" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 01, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The widespread implementation of geographic information systems has played an enormous role in the way that modern metropolitan police departments concentrate their efforts. This current focus on crime science provides administrators with up to date details of crime and crime patterns within municipalities as well as the ability to focus on smaller geographic areas. Particular emphasis has been placed on 'hot spots' analyses wherein police efforts are concentrated in these smaller geographic areas, characterized by disproportionately greater crime counts or an increased count of calls for service. Unfortunately, this emphasis on hot spots analyses leads us to a circular reasoning where crime is the only, or best, predictor of crime.

This research offers an alternative through the construction of theoretically driven hot spots. Examining over two years worth of crime data from Philadelphia, Pa. this research compares the effectiveness of traditional hot spots against the effectiveness of theory driven hot spots, employing social disorganization theory, in consistently identifying areas in which concentrations of crime occur.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 16 pages || Words: 4573 words || 
3. Phalen, Steven. "Red Hot Ethnography: Exploring Rites of Passage and Play in the Cultural Performances of the Red Hot Chili Peppers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-10 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Through the lens of a Red Hot Chili Pepper concert, I have explored, using Van Gennep and Huizinga, the moments at the start and end of the performance, where the performers successful carry the audience across that liminal space from everyday reality to the temporary performance reality. In this separate reality, performers and audience converge in a brief temporality of aesthetic expression where both parties maintain and perform in this created reality.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 212 words || 
4. Hunt, Joel., Wilson, Ronald. and Brown, Timothy. "Critiquing Measures for Predictive Hot Spot Accuracy: Do the PAI and RRI indicate Hot Spot Accuracy?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Hot Spot analysis has become a norm for the majority of police departments that use geographic information systems (GIS). However, of the many techniques available the question that has remained is which hot spots technique to use? In an effort to answer that question, two measures of hot spot accuracy have been introduced, the Predictive Accuracy Index (PAI) and the Recapture Rate Index (RRI). These two measures are of particular interest because they consider grouped data, whether at the police beat, census block group, or even census tract (Some of the techniques work directly on the observations themselves).
The aim of this research is to describe the potential pros and cons of relying on these indices as measures of accuracy. To do so, this research will examine how these results change across six crime categories (Commercial Burglary, Homicide, Residential Burglary, Street Crime, Theft from Auto, and Theft of Auto), across six time frames (two weeks, one month, two months, three months, six months, and one year), in several types of geographies (Charlotte, NC, Pittsburgh, PA, Hillsborough County, FL and Lincoln, NE). Additionally, this research will attempt to guide researchers into developing a new probability based index to incorporate the pros of these models while resolving many of the cons.

2011 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 151 words || 
5. Ariel, Barak. and Sherman, Lawrence. "Hot Dots and Hot Lines: Analysis of 80,000 Crime Incidents in London Underground" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 15, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research presents an exploratory analysis of three years of crime incidents in London Underground (n=79,873). Along with basic descriptive statistics of official crime reports, three converging analyses are presented: first, temporal analysis of ‘hot times’ of crime occurring across the London Underground, on both trains and in stations. Data suggest non-random patterns of crime, concentrating particularly during rush hours (5-7PM) and especially on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays. Second, from spatial analysis of the data we show existence of geographic hot spots: highly-skewed concentrations of crime at specific areas in ‘hot stations’, especially on platforms and at stations’ entrance points. Data show that usually around 5% of station platforms produce over 50% of crime. Third, compared to street-level crime - in terms of both raw figures and crime rates per capita - the London Tube system is a relatively safe place, with petty theft accounting for nearly half of all incidents.

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