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2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 13866 words || 
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1. Huang, Grace. "Avenging National Humiliation: Chiang Kaishek's Response to the Japanese Occupation of Manchuria" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 03, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p61048_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines how political leaders of weak states confront imperial aggressors. In particular, it investigates Chiang Kaishek’s response in 1931 to Japanese aggression and eventual occupation of Manchuria, an action that some have called the true beginning to World War II. Japanese military superiority considerably constrained Chiang’s choices as a leader. The indisputable military inequality between Japan and China may lead one to conclude that Chiang could not exercise leadership in a way that mattered. This paper argues that by examining agency as a process, however, we open up new avenues for examining Chiang’s agency. By process, I mean given Chiang’s unfavorable structural situation, how did he selectively apply history (i.e. draw from strategies of past political leaders or from their past political decisions) and envision the future direction of history to solve day-to-day political problems? Through this approach, we are able to depict more faithfully Chiang’s agency, and in addition, better evaluate the strengths and shortcomings of his agency.
This paper demonstrates that even as the stakes were much higher in Chiang’s second confrontation with the Japanese (the first being in 1928), and his structural context had simultaneously worsened, Chiang diversified his uses of shame to confront these greater challenges. These included noncooperation and nondirect negotiations to guard against further humiliation from the Japanese and nonmilitary resistance to establish China’s innocence in the international arena. In addition, by defining shame as China’s disunity on the macro-level and by highlighting the undeserved humiliation he was receiving from fellow party members, Chiang further emphasized the difficult contextual situation he was in. And by portraying himself as valiantly struggling within this context, he aimed to guarantee his place in history regardless of the results.
I rely on the ‘diaries’ of Chiang that the Taiwanese government recently opened to the public in 1997. In painstaking brushwork calligraphy, Chiang’s secretaries had copied quotations from Chiang’s diaries and portions of his speeches and telegrams, among other writings by Chiang. The presentation and content of this source, properly called the working [shilue] manuscripts, give us a unique window to understand Chiang’s agency in the face of Japanese aggression.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 21 pages || Words: 9141 words || 
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2. Gries, Peter. "Narratives to Live By: The "Century of Humiliation" and Chinese National Identity Today" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p59334_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 308 words || 
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3. "Rational Decisions and Memories of Humiliation in Palestine and China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252863_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: While emotional sources of behaviour tend to be contrasted with those traditionally emphasized by rationalists, recent work on the neuroscience of emotions indicates that they are in fact necessary for the type of effective decision-making usually taken for granted by economic theories of choice. Some findings about learned emotional stimuli from neuroscience potentially complement, rather than compete with, the propositions of cognitive psychology, the political sociology of emotions and social constructivism in IR, including their insights into learning, practice and collective actorhood. For IR, these findings about the emotional components of choice and their social and cultural backdrop suggest the need to pay closer attention to what are typically deemed irrational, emotive or pathological international behaviours and to study how differing political and cultural contexts affect and are affected by the emotions ubiquitous in political life.One specific set of emotions to draw the attention of IR scholars has to do with humiliation and shame. Specific examples invoked, but not systematically studied, in IR include the discourses and practices explicitly centred on memorializing humiliation found in the contexts of contemporary Palestinian nationalism and Chinese nationalism. Despite sharing important similarities, these two cases of humiliation remembrance have emerged and grown in vastly different international political contexts and found expression in dissimilar daily practices, discursive forms and formal institutions. In both cases, however, neuroscientific, psychological and sociological research suggests that the effort to keep memories of humiliation salient carries implications for "rational" political decision-making, at individual and potentially collective levels, and thus for conflict resolution. This paper explores whether and how, in the Palestinian and Chinese cases, practices and discourses relating to the memory of humiliation affect the rational choice-making capacities of actors involved in disputes or conflicts. While the focus is on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, propositions about the possibility and limits of comparison with China and other cases are offered.

2008 - ISPP 31st Annual Scientific Meeting Pages: 37 pages || Words: 6282 words || 
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4. Murugesan, Vani., Sears, David. and Garafola, Vicky. "The Effect of Humiliation on Preferences for Aggressive Foreign Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 31st Annual Scientific Meeting, Sciences Po, Paris, France, Jul 08, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p245410_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Abstract: Previous research has likened humiliation to a “nuclear bomb of emotions,” in which the emotion can lead to violent retaliation, genocide, and other extraordinarily violent acts (Lindner, 2002). Study 1, at the interpersonal level, demonstrates that retaliatory aggression is viewed as more acceptable after one has been humiliated, regardless of the level of aggression in the initial provoking event. Study 2 extends this line of research into the realm of foreign policy. Subjects (N=262) read one of two articles about the impact of 9/11 on America’s status. Humiliation in the national context was defined as a public loss of status. Both articles mentioned that, despite the horrific attacks, America is still (factually) an internationally dominating country economically, militarily, and culturally. However, one article described how America’s perceived status in the international world remained the same after 9/11 (no humiliation condition), the other article discussed how (facts aside), world wide opinion of the US dropped significantly, such that the US was viewed as not being that powerful after the attacks (humiliation condition). Subjects then indicated their preference for aggressive foreign policy against several relevant targets (e.g., al-Qaeda) and irrelevant targets (e.g., North Korea). Results indicate an interaction effect, in which support for aggressive foreign policy after humiliation depends upon one’s political ideology, with conservatives becoming more aggressive and liberals retreating. The interaction highlights a filtering effect for ideology, in which humiliation polarizes, making conservatives more “hawkish” and liberals more “doveish.”

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 6954 words || 
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5. Cohen, Jonathan., Weimann, Gabriel. and Bar-Sinai, Inbal. "Humiliation and Enjoyment of Reality Shows" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 21, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p297586_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Reality shows, currently the most popular television genre in most Western societies, contain many humiliating scenes. The humiliation takes on many forms: It includes personal insults and harsh criticisms by judges, exposing the agony of defeat, the public airings of people's troubles and defects, making people survive by eating otherwise inedible foods, etc. The present study questions the underlying assumption held by the producers of reality shows that humiliation serves to enhance audience enjoyment. The study was designed to experimentally test the association between perceived humiliation in reality shows and the enjoyment from them. The design included a between-subject factor manipulating the type of humiliation (insult and degradation), a within subject factor manipulating the level of humiliation of the scenes (presented in either an escalating or decreasing order), and the measurement of enjoyment of the various scenes as a dependent variable. The findings were contrary to the theoretical expectations and the common assumptions: As humiliation increases enjoyment decreases. Furthermore, as humiliation increases displeasure increases. From a closer look at the data it seems that this relationship is not linear and it is only the intense humiliation that harms enjoyment.

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