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2015 - 4S Annual Meeting – Denver Words: 242 words || 
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1. Foot, Kirsten. and Gomez, Ricardo. "Pushing Back on ICTs via Humor: STS-Informed Analyses of ICT-Critiquing Cartoons and Memes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting – Denver, Sheraton Downtown, Denver, CO, Nov 11, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1036261_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: STS scholarship on resistance to technologies has identified many forms, one of which is humor (c.f. Eglash et. al. (Eds.) Appropriating Technology (2004, UMN Press)). In prior studies of pushback against ICTs, we have found that humor is a common form of critique and protest against constant digital connectivity. In this paper we adapt analytical lenses from Eglash et. al.’s volume to analyze digital artifacts that embody critique, resistance, or outright revolt against the ubiquity of ICTs via various types of humor. Through visual analyses of over 200 online cartoons and memes we found they convey rich expressions of our society's saturation with the expectations of constant connectivity, and of the search for new ways to negotiate our uses --and non-uses-- of technology in everyday life. In addition to the anticipated metaphors of addiction to technology as drugs, and of unplugging as a way to reconnect to nature, common in other written expressions of resistance to technology, we found unique expressions of a critique of technology through humor. The varieties of humor-as-resistance that we found include the use of absurd, surprise, contrast, diverse perspectives, and extreme situations. Furthermore, we found subtle expressions that blur the boundaries between "real life" and "digital life," which express clear notions of resistance to technology in our super-connected world. By analyzing humor in images of technology pushback, we contribute novel, STS-based insights to the growing study of resistance and non-use of information technologies in contemporary society.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Martin-Shields, Charles. "ICTs and Peacekeeping: ICT Investment and Post-conflict Stability" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1120206_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Peacekeeping operations, mandated through the United Nations and regional bodies, play an increasingly large role in the administration and economic recovery of post-conflict countries. While there has been some literature dedicated to the negative effects of peacekeeping operations, such as price increases for local goods, less attention has been focused on the potential positive economic effects a mission can have on its host country. Our paper expands on this literature, as well as the literature on technology and peacebuilding, by looking at the potential ways that missions' use of communication technology can increase local economic growth in the long term. Using existing data on the growth effects of ICTs in developing and fragile states, we specify a Douglas-Cobb growth model that projects the potential impact of peacekeeping mission-led ICT investment on longer term economic growth. Using this model we argue that peacekeeping missions should use their purchasing power and stabilizing influence to attract value-added technology investment and infrastructure. This has the potential to improve mission capacity as well as creating a stronger base to build a post-conflict economy on.

2010 - 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 247 words || 
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3. Yamaguchi, Shinobu. and Dondov, Binderiya. "ICT Application to Schools: From the Data Analysis of FTI-ICT Initiatives" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p400051_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Within the scope of support to achieving universal primary education goal set in the Educational Development Master Plan (2006-2015), the Ministry of Education is implementing the EFA-FTI project since 2007. Improving in-service teacher training is identified as an important activity towards increasing access and quality of primary education. Among variety of the program, providing training for primary school teachers on improving their basic knowledge, and skill of ICT and developing self-study learning has been seen as crucial aspect for teacher development. In order to analyze the current condition of ICT introduction into teaching at primary school level, an extensive survey was conducted in August 2009 in 21 aimags (provinces) and Ulaanbaatar (city), covering 858 primary school teachers. Preliminary result of the data analysis indicates 1) level of basic school infrastructure varies from aimag to aimag; 2) Students react positively to ICT use in class; 3) Difficulties related to ICT use in education are mainly in line with infrastructure issues; 4) Confidence level as well as motivation level are quite high among teachers; 5) similar trend is evident for basic ICT skills and its application in school teaching between urban and rural teachers; 6) strong desire in introducing ICT in class room teaching is evident among primary school teachers. This paper aims to illustrate the current trend in ICT use in classroom quantitatively and qualitatively, and further to highlight issues which needs close attention in improving quality in primary school education in Mongolia.

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