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2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 7758 words || 
1. Swigger, Nathaniel. "Points for Subtlety: Influencing Voter Perceptions with Background Imagery in Campaign Ads" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: In the past, implicit imagery in political advertisements has received short thrift from political scientists. Most candidates make appeals based on issues or personal character; however, the appeals need not be delivered like a blow to the head. Since images provide an implicit cue about the issue positions or ideology of a candidate, then they can reinforce or combat partisan stereotypes. I use experimental evidence to show that placing African-Americans in the background of campaign ads significantly alters subjects’ perceptions of the candidate. I created a series of campaign fliers for a fictional congressional candidate. I find that voters perceive both Republican and Democratic candidates as more liberal on racial issues when an African-American accompanies the candidate. This effect is not diminished even when the candidate takes explicit positions on racial issues. Because of its impact, implicit imagery can be a valuable, and virtually costless, strategic tool in campaigns as candidates in both parties attempt to move toward the median voter.

2003 - American Sociological Association Words: 3 words || 
2. Roth, Benita. "Transnational Imagery, Gender Roles and the Uses of History in Second Wave Feminisms." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: (to be uploaded)

2006 - International Communication Association Pages: 14 pages || Words: 5465 words || 
3. Glenn, Ian. "Classical Imagery and Early Representations of Black South Africans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany, Jun 16, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: When colonisers met colonised in early South African writing, their accounts were often far more complex than historians and cultural critics have allowed. This paper shows how classical literature and art shaped the ways in which the colonisers came to terms with the colonised – how they responded to their customs, bodies and actions. (While some uses of classical names for slaves might have been ironic or deliberately pre-Christian, this tradition is largely positive.)
Early accounts used frames from classical literature to describe relationships between European men and African women. In describing the African male body, too, the descriptions turned to classical visual and political parallels.
This tradition lasted through much of the nineteenth century but the rising tide of settler hostility, missionary influence and social Darwinism brought different, racialised, discourses prescribing how black bodies were to be described. In many ways, the seventeenth and eighteenth century descriptions provided a positive way of framing difference that is still being rediscovered.

2008 - MWERA Annual Meeting Pages: 11 pages || Words: 2298 words || 
4. Zhang, Dake. "Effects of Integrated-Object-Representation on Improving Visual Imagery Skills in Geometry Problem Solving for Students with Math Disabilities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MWERA Annual Meeting, Westin Great Southern Hotel, Columbus, Ohio, Oct 15, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Roundtable Discussion/Poster
Abstract: Students with mathematical learning disabilities are often deficient in visual working memory, which is used to temporarily maintain and manipulate visual information. Consequently these students experience difficulties in geometry problem solving which requires strong visual imagery skills. Enlightened by the cognitive psychological finding that the conjunction of visual items could help enlarge visual working memory capacity, this study investigated the effects of integrated-object-representation versus the traditional individual-line-representation for geometric problem graphs on students’ ability to solve geometry problems. Participants will be 4th and 5th graders with mathematics disabilities (MD). A two-factor ANOVA will be employed to assess whether there is an interactive effect between test versions (individual- line-representation version & integrated-object-representation) and studens groups (MD students/ Non-MD students). The results are expected to indicate that the accomondation (integrated-object-representation) improves students’ performance on researcher designed tests. Qualitative survey is also expected to demonstrate students’ preference of the integrated-object-representation.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 28 pages || Words: 7231 words || 
5. Martins, Nicole., Williams, Dmitri. and Harrison, Kristen. "A Content Analysis of Female Body Imagery in Video Games" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study examined the body imagery of female video game characters. 150 top-selling video games across nine platforms were content analyzed. A total of 368 characters identified as female were used for analysis. Of these characters, 193 screen shots were obtained, and the height, head breadth, shoulder width, chest breadth, waist width and hip width were measured. The measurements were then converted to circumferences and scaled to a height of 64.55 inches based on our anthropometric sample data of 1,331 women enrolled in the United States Army. The results show that female video game characters represent larger versions of the average fit American female. The implications for cultivation and game research are discussed.

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