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2012 - LRA 62nd Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 1823 words || 
1. Sailors, Misty., Hoffman, James., Wilson, Troy., Villarreal, Lorena., Peterson, Katie. and Chilora, Henri. "High implementing schools in Malawi: What does it mean to implement a school-wide reading program?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA 62nd Annual Conference, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, CA, Nov 28, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 20 pages || Words: 4762 words || 
2. Cosgrove, Erica. "Recent Challenges to Implementation of Targeted Sanctions (2003-2008): From Smarter Targeting to Effective Implementation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: United Nations sanctions are an essential instrument of multilateral action under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Since 1990, the Security Council has launched a new era in the use of collective coercive economic measures as a means of responding to violations of international norms. The Council has passed dozens of resolutions imposed against more than sixteen distinct targets including states, nongovernmental entities, militias and other political/military movements. This paper will explore the effectiveness of targeted sanctions by considering how successful sanctions are in terms of achieving the goals set by the UN Security Council. The activities that contribute to effective sanctions are discussed in three distinct areas and issues of concern and possibilities for improvement are highlighted.This paper will consider why sanctions do not always achieve the goals desired by the Security Council and suggest areas for possible improvement. The following activities are key components to the successful use of targeted sanctions, and are also areas where improvements might be made: A.Setting and Achieving GoalsB.ListingC.SignalingAfter laying out suggestions for more effective sanctions, we will turn our attention to implementation. Finding ways to implement sanctions in as swift and complete a manner as possible is the key to addressing the majority of problems that have been encountered in the use of sanctions. Finally, this paper will consider the various responses to sanctions after they are implemented and will offer suggestions for maintaining a flexible, dynamic response to events on the ground.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 534 words || 
3. Dekker, Diane. "Top-down language policy implementation in the Philippines: How policy implementation is support by top-down initiatives and from-the-side actors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, <Not Available>. 2019-10-14 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Mother Tongue-based Multingual Education has become a primary focus within the current Education for All initiative, which was renewed in the new Sustainable Development Goals. These documents state that provision of quality education for all learners must include learning through the mother tongue as well as learning other languages. As such, the Philippines Department of Education has recently initiated a top-down change in language in education policy from a dual language bilingual immersion policy to a mother tongue-based multilingual education policy (DepEd EO 74, S. 2009). In actuality this is a double top-down policy change as politicians also crafted a law (Republic Act 10533) to ensure that the policy is never overturned.

The intent of the policy change is to improve learning outcomes among young Filipino learners through beginning schooling in the mother tongue and adding the national language, Filipino, and English as second languages before using those languages for instruction. While a history of national level discourses considered the language of instruction issue, the masses remain generally uninformed of the rationale of the policy and the supporting research. Such lack of information impacts the perception of the policy resulting in various layered levels of implementation. Even with reforms in top-down DepEd training, teachers and principals claim insufficient knowledge and training in implementing the policy. Thus key players from the side, such as university professors, entire university departments, and language organizations, have increased partnership with DepEd to ensure ongoing development for the program toward sound implementation.

This paper considers how various actors from the top, the bottom and the side respond to the policy and impact implementation. The top-down policy ignites a new, encouraging perspective among Filipinos to embrace their multiple identities, including local language identities, in new ways that challenge previous deeply cultivated English identities. The policy inadvertently begins a new era of building capital in non-dominant languages through growing social participation from the side in conjunction with the top.

The paper frames this discussion within multiple lenses: societal power relations, globalization, and decolonizing education. An exploration of societal power relations provides analysis of how Filipino non-dominant language speakers have been positioned through previous top-down language policies created by and for the elite, and how this has changed with the new MTB MLE policy. Considering globalization and the ensuing power of English provides a glimpse into how Filipinos view their own mother tongues within a global hierarchy of languages. Finally, the perspective of decolonizing education aims to work from the bottom, the side and the top in contributing to more equitable educational opportunities and creation of capital in non-dominant languages.

This paper is based on the author’s extensive work in the Philippines interacting with key actors as well as her recent doctoral research (Dekker forthcoming). Data sources include interviews, analysis of Filipino scholarly publications, newspaper articles, and personal observations. The paper provides a comparative perspective across the Philippine archipelago.

Dekker, Diane (forthcoming) Filipino teachers negotiate their identities on a new mother tongue-based multilingual education policy landscape. University of Toronto Dissertation.
DepEd (Department of Education of the Philippines) (2009) Order No. 74 2009. Institutionalizing mother tongue-based multilingual education (MLE).,%20s.%202009.pdf
DepEd (Department of Education of the Philippines) (2013) Republic Act 10533. Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Pages: unavailable || Words: 11739 words || 
4. Ambrozik, Caitlin. "Implementing CVE: Uncovering Implementation Barriers for US Governance Networks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-10-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 2011, the United States Government released a national strategy to counter violent extremism (CVE) domestically by addressing the underlying root causes of violent extremism through non-punitive measures. With this strategy, the U.S. Government seeks to empower local communities to design and implement their own collaborative and multidisciplinary CVE. As such, the strategy calls for the creation of a principal-multi-agent relationship between the Federal Government and a collaborative public-private governance network. While other countries use a centralized CVE strategy, the U.S. Federal Government chose this decentralized approach to increase the legitimacy and effectiveness of CVE efforts. However, this approach comes at a cost: a lack of programs. While some governance networks, such as one in Montgomery County, MD, have mobilized and successfully implemented CVE programs, others have failed to make it past the policy planning phase or even mobilize around the concept of CVE. The lack of CVE programs in the U.S. threatens the viability of not just a decentralized approach, but also the future of CVE efforts. Since CVE efforts have the potential to increase domestic and international security, this paper explores the lack of programs in the U.S. and asks: why do CVE governance networks emerge and why are only some governance networks successful in implementation?

I argue that agents are more likely to mobilize around the concept of CVE and establish a governance network when the Federal Government consistently positively exposes the agents to the concept. The uncertainty around the concept of CVE and the costs associated with implementation makes the establishment of a principal-multi-agent relationship unlikely without the principal’s intervention. However, mobilization does not necessarily lead to implementation. Although the consensus-based decision-making design of governance networks makes this type of policy delivery appealing, this institutional design can also lead to problems. I also argue that implementation is more likely in areas where the mobilized governance network uses an informal centralized, yet internal to the governance network, decision-making structure for policy implementation decisions. Given the number of agents involved and operating in an uncertain environment, a centralization mechanism is needed to overcome coordination problems and conflicts of interest that arise within the planning phase that can lead to decision stalemates.

Drawing on interviews with U.S. Government officials and governance network members and declassified government documents, this paper examines these arguments using a most similar systems research design to analyze the implementation process in four areas that at least attempted to implement CVE programs: the Greater Boston Area, Greater Columbus Area, Greater Los Angeles Area, and Montgomery County, MD. I find evidence that supports both the need for principal intervention in mobilizing CVE governance networks and a centralization mechanism for decision-making within governance networks. Besides providing an empirical explanation for the lack of CVE programs in the U.S, the results have important implications for policy implementation by local innovative governance networks and the design of CVE governance networks domestically and abroad.

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 748 words || 
5. Drury, Bridget. and Moya, Edwin. "Designing and implementing an educational intervention in the context of an experimental evaluation: Implementer’s perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, <Not Available>. 2019-10-14 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Overview. In recent years, Honduras been a leader in the Latin American region in the use of assessments to improve teaching and learning. With funding support from international donors, our organization has supported the Honduran Ministry of Education’s (MOE) efforts to expand formative and summative assessments. In 2013, we entered into conversations about a new intervention that would provide materials and support for 180 primary schools in Honduras, and that would be implemented as part of a randomized evaluation conducted by an external evaluator. We will describe the context for the intervention, and our experience implementing an intervention that is part of a randomized evaluation.

Honduras has been a leader in assessment in Latin America, but schools lacked consistent support. Honduras has been at the forefront of Latin American countries using formative and summative assessment to support teaching and learning. In the years leading up to the evaluation design stage for the program, the MOE had provided training and materials to support the application of monthly formative assessments linked to the national curriculum. Working with the support of the projects that we implement with the support of our funder, the MOE had also conducted nation-wide summative testing. Formative and summative assessment had the full support of the MOE, but due to technical and resource/funding challenges, schools did not have consistent access to the materials or expertise to take full advantage of both types of assessment.

We brought our direct experience with assessment in Honduras to discussions of intervention and evaluation design. We participated in early conversations with our funder and the external evaluator to identify policy-relevant research questions and approaches to conduct rigorous research to answer those questions. These questions combined our direct experience working on assessment and other activities in Honduras with the funder’s expertise and priorities and the external evaluator’s expertise on evaluation design and implementation. These conversations proved fruitful as we, as a group, identified assessment as an intervention of domestic and international policy relevance. We also determined that it was feasible to implement an intervention that would include elements of formative and summative assessment, and that it would be feasible for our evaluation partner to design and implement a rigorous evaluation of the intervention.

Our role in Honduras is as an implementing organization. However, we recognize the value of rigorous evaluations and have supported the randomized evaluation of our intervention. We consider this effort valuable because the results of the evaluation will provide essential information to policy-makers at the MOE, who face difficult tradeoffs when allocating scarce resources. Similarly, policy-makers throughout the region will benefit from the information the evaluation generates as they weigh the relative benefits of alternative interventions to improve education in their own countries.

Implementing an intervention for rigorous evaluation involves compromises and coordination. The implementer must make some key decisions jointly with the evaluator—most critically, deciding in what areas to work and in what schools. An additional challenge that resulted from the specific evaluation design for this evaluation results from the fact that this evaluation randomly assigned schools into three groups: two treatment groups (A and B) and one control group. The implementer implemented one treatment in both groups, and an additional treatment in Group A only. This meant that the implementer had to ensure that their staff did not offer any element of the treatment intended for Group A only in the Group B schools where they worked.

We found successful strategies to do our work while supporting the randomized evaluation. The most important strategy for supporting the evaluation was regular communication with the external evaluator, including during the evaluation and intervention design stage. We reached agreement on implementation and evaluation plans before the details of either were finalized. As a result, neither party had unreasonable expectations of the other. Another component of our open communication strategy was to invite the evaluator to pedagogical advisor training. The evaluator presented the evaluation design and the rationale behind random assignment, explaining what the pedagogical advisors role was in supporting a successful evaluation. Throughout the intervention period, we remained in close contact with the evaluator, conducting regular meetings to discuss implementation and challenges as they arose. Another key element was the project personnel’s experience and history working with the Honduran MOE and providing school level support. The experience and collaborative relationship that the Honduran technical team had with MOE counterparts at the central, departmental, district, and school levels was instrumental in successfully navigating the implementation challenges an RCT evaluation design can bring.

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