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2013 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 211 words || 
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1. Meyers, Duncan., Wandersman, Abraham. and Castellow, Jennifer. "The Quality Implementation Tool: A practical tool communities can use to strengthen implementation quality" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p653100_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The Quality Implementation Tool (QIT) is a synthesis and translation of research literature on the specific actions (i.e., the “how to”) that can be employed to foster high quality implementation (i.e., putting an innovation into practice in a way that meets the necessary standards to achieve the innovation’s desired outcomes). By focusing on the “how to” of implementation, the QIT is meant to provide practitioners, consultants, researchers, program designers, and funders with practical strategies to improve implementation. The tool can be used by these stakeholders to help proactively plan and monitor systematic quality implementation, and it suggests future directions for research. This presentation will discuss the six components that comprise the QIT, how they were developed from an extensive synthesis of the implementation research literature (Meyers, Durlak, & Wandersman, 2012), and describe how it can be used as a consultation tool to guide planning, monitoring and evaluating implementation.

Meyers, D. C., Durlak, J. A., & Wandersman, A. (2012). The Quality Implementation Framework: A synthesis of critical steps in the implementation process. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3-4), 462-480.

Meyers, D. C., Katz, J., Chien, V., Wandersman, A., Scaccia, J. P., & Wright, A. (2012). Practical implementation science: Developing and piloting the Quality Implementation Tool. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3-4), 481-496.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 12101 words || 
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2. McKay, Tara. "The Implementation-Autonomy Trade Off: How Policy Implementation Shapes the Structures and Strategies of AIDS IGOs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726697_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: International organizations frequently behave in ways that are unanticipated and incongruous with the interests of member states. To explain how this is possible, scholars highlight the structures and strategies that organizations use to maintain or increase their influence and decision-making autonomy. Using archival and interview data from WHO's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS),this paper extends research on the behavior of international organizations by showing how concerns about policy implementation shape the structures and strategies that organizations adopt. Throughout, I focus on the efforts of GPA and UNAIDS to establish a global agenda for addressing HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a highly contentious policy priority that encountered significant barriers to implementation. These barriers include state sovereignty, competition from other organizations, and decentralization of the organization itself. Comparing the decision-making structures of GPA and UNAIDS, I argue that international organizations, especially those with limited enforcement power, are highly sensitive to an implementation-autonomy trade off, wherein organizations may give up autonomy in decision-making in order to promote broader implementation by states. Yet, ceding decision-making autonomy does not require that less powerful organizations merely adopt the policy preferences of states. Rather, I show how organizations in this position adopt several indirect strategies to reorient policy preferences outside the organization and, in the process, introduce new ideas and opportunities for action that transform both the actors involved in generating new policy as well as the process of generating policy itself.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 20 pages || Words: 4762 words || 
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3. Cosgrove, Erica. "Recent Challenges to Implementation of Targeted Sanctions (2003-2008): From Smarter Targeting to Effective Implementation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p250900_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: United Nations sanctions are an essential instrument of multilateral action under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Since 1990, the Security Council has launched a new era in the use of collective coercive economic measures as a means of responding to violations of international norms. The Council has passed dozens of resolutions imposed against more than sixteen distinct targets including states, nongovernmental entities, militias and other political/military movements. This paper will explore the effectiveness of targeted sanctions by considering how successful sanctions are in terms of achieving the goals set by the UN Security Council. The activities that contribute to effective sanctions are discussed in three distinct areas and issues of concern and possibilities for improvement are highlighted.This paper will consider why sanctions do not always achieve the goals desired by the Security Council and suggest areas for possible improvement. The following activities are key components to the successful use of targeted sanctions, and are also areas where improvements might be made: A.Setting and Achieving GoalsB.ListingC.SignalingAfter laying out suggestions for more effective sanctions, we will turn our attention to implementation. Finding ways to implement sanctions in as swift and complete a manner as possible is the key to addressing the majority of problems that have been encountered in the use of sanctions. Finally, this paper will consider the various responses to sanctions after they are implemented and will offer suggestions for maintaining a flexible, dynamic response to events on the ground.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Pages: unavailable || Words: 11739 words || 
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4. Ambrozik, Caitlin. "Implementing CVE: Uncovering Implementation Barriers for US Governance Networks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1248361_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 2011, the United States Government released a national strategy to counter violent extremism (CVE) domestically by addressing the underlying root causes of violent extremism through non-punitive measures. With this strategy, the U.S. Government seeks to empower local communities to design and implement their own collaborative and multidisciplinary CVE. As such, the strategy calls for the creation of a principal-multi-agent relationship between the Federal Government and a collaborative public-private governance network. While other countries use a centralized CVE strategy, the U.S. Federal Government chose this decentralized approach to increase the legitimacy and effectiveness of CVE efforts. However, this approach comes at a cost: a lack of programs. While some governance networks, such as one in Montgomery County, MD, have mobilized and successfully implemented CVE programs, others have failed to make it past the policy planning phase or even mobilize around the concept of CVE. The lack of CVE programs in the U.S. threatens the viability of not just a decentralized approach, but also the future of CVE efforts. Since CVE efforts have the potential to increase domestic and international security, this paper explores the lack of programs in the U.S. and asks: why do CVE governance networks emerge and why are only some governance networks successful in implementation?

I argue that agents are more likely to mobilize around the concept of CVE and establish a governance network when the Federal Government consistently positively exposes the agents to the concept. The uncertainty around the concept of CVE and the costs associated with implementation makes the establishment of a principal-multi-agent relationship unlikely without the principal’s intervention. However, mobilization does not necessarily lead to implementation. Although the consensus-based decision-making design of governance networks makes this type of policy delivery appealing, this institutional design can also lead to problems. I also argue that implementation is more likely in areas where the mobilized governance network uses an informal centralized, yet internal to the governance network, decision-making structure for policy implementation decisions. Given the number of agents involved and operating in an uncertain environment, a centralization mechanism is needed to overcome coordination problems and conflicts of interest that arise within the planning phase that can lead to decision stalemates.

Drawing on interviews with U.S. Government officials and governance network members and declassified government documents, this paper examines these arguments using a most similar systems research design to analyze the implementation process in four areas that at least attempted to implement CVE programs: the Greater Boston Area, Greater Columbus Area, Greater Los Angeles Area, and Montgomery County, MD. I find evidence that supports both the need for principal intervention in mobilizing CVE governance networks and a centralization mechanism for decision-making within governance networks. Besides providing an empirical explanation for the lack of CVE programs in the U.S, the results have important implications for policy implementation by local innovative governance networks and the design of CVE governance networks domestically and abroad.

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Schreckhise, William. and Chand, Daniel. "Intergovernmental Implementation in a Time of Uncooperative Federalism: Local Implementation of the Federal Secure Communities Program, 2010-2014" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1350065_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Via time-series multilevel models, we examine the role various social, economic, and political factors play in the implementation of the federal Secure Communities program across time and space.

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