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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 47 pages || Words: 14397 words || 
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1. Sajjad, Tazreena. "The Independence of Independent Human Rights Commissions in Post-Conflict Environments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p181044_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The challenges facing national human rights mechanisms in post-conflict environments are enormous. From reconstituting the national human rights framework to taking on the indomitable task of rebuilding each of the human rights infrastructures, independent human rights commissions in particular play an instrumental role in redefining the human rights culture of their countries. Added to these responsibilities is the reality of functioning within a space which in many ways is littered with the remnants of ethnic hostilities and political tensions from the conflict era. Several questions may be posed about how these mechanisms constitute their identities within the difficult context in which they function. How is this political space constantly negotiated by national human rights mechanisms in their effort to bring the human rights doctrine into the mainstream? How are the strategies or mechanisms defined and developed for each of the areas of their mandate? What are the specific challenges that they face in maintaining the ?independent? nature of their work? And finally, how much of their commitment to matters of transitional justice and truth and reconciliation work is permitted or curtailed because of the highly politicized nature of such work? This paper is an attempt to capture the nuanced and complex political space which national human rights mechanisms such as independent human rights commissions occupy in the aftermath of conflict and how they define their commitment to the political project of pursuing transitional justice. Using Afghanistan and East Timor as case studies, the paper will argue that the challenge of independent human rights commissions and the success and failure of their work continue to lie in the negotiation for political space in an often volatile and determinedly hostile post-conflict environment.

2008 - The Mathematical Association of America MathFest Words: 65 words || 
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2. Chism, Lyrial. "On Independence Polynomials and Independence Equivalence in Graphs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Mathematical Association of America MathFest, TBA, Madison, Wisconsin, Jul 28, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p274490_index.html>
Publication Type: Graduate Student Paper
Abstract: The independence polynomial of a graph $G$ is $\sum f_{k}(G)x^{k}$ where $f_{k}(G)$ is the number of $k$-element independent vertex sets in $G$. Graphs $G$ and $H$ are said to be independence-equivalent if they have the same independence polynomial. I present examples of infinite classes of independence-equivalent graphs and I also determine some previously-unknown independence polynomials using vertex-reduction, recursion relations, and generating functions.

2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 13 pages || Words: 3314 words || 
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3. Prather, James. and Hoffman, Marvin. "Party Independence: Revisiting the Question of the Independent Voter and the Importance of Party Identification" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p66180_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: National Election Studies data from 1952-2000 is analyzed to determine whether the conventional wisdom (low participation, low interest in politics, lower education levels) remains true over time or whether these impressions are time-bound.

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 20 words || 
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4. Garcia-Rojas, Jose. "Independent Candidatures in the Spanish Local Elections: A Case Study About Independent Groups in the Local Elections in the Canaries." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p86282_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The process is characterised by favouring the party candidatures.In local elections conditions are given for the running of independent candidatures.

2007 - The American Studies Association Words: 493 words || 
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5. Smith, Carol. "Portraying Nationhood in Philadelphia: the People of Independence portrait exhibition in Independence National Park" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The American Studies Association, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p186113_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper will examine the People of Independence permanent exhibition in Philadelphia as a contestation of normative practises of deploying portraits and other visual sources in the service of a unitary narrative of nationhood. The paper will situate the exhibition within the larger narrative of the use of portraiture in the construction of national identity, it will build on my own and others work on the relationship between cultural production, museums and the formation of national identity.
In contrast to the exclusionary patterns of collecting, curating and exhibiting historic portraits in such institutions as the National Portrait Gallery in Washington the Philadelphia exhibition employs and facilitates an interrogative viewing process which acknowledges and reflects the diverse identificatory needs of the local communities while interpolating the tourist audience in the national process of commemorating the Declaration of nationhood.
The exhibition consists of the portrait collection of Independence National Historic Park which predominantly dates from the late 18th and 19th C contextualised by a variety of visual sources and is housed in the Second National Bank. The nucleus of the exhibition is Charles Wilson Peale’s portraits of American Revolutionary heroes which were originally displayed in his Museum in the 1790s with the didactic intention ‘to instruct the mind and sow the seeds of virtue’ in the minds and body politic of the new American republican citizens. The ethnic and gendered delimits of the political and visual economy of virtue was and is obvious; of the 200 ‘heroes’ in the Peale Museum catalogues only a two are not white or not male (Joseph Bryant/Thayendanegea and Martha Dandridge Cutis) The present exhibition acknowledges this 18C foundation and lack of other ‘Other’ extant portraits and by extension revolutionary heroes, while at the same time encouraging the diverse 21C viewers to contest such exclusive particularly in American nation building. Thus the Peale portraits are hung beside reproductions of portraits of such symbolic figures such as Phillis Wheatley and Equiano and contextualised by interrogative exhibition practises.
Thus it will argue that the exhibition can be used a model of how a national narrative of nation building needs to be understood in relationship to localised community narratives. The contribution of the local 18C and contemporary communities of freed and enslaved African Americans will be emphasised. As with the case of ethnicity, the way in which the prevailing norms of 18C political and aesthetic practises combined to exclude woman, many poorer white men and people of colour will be read through the details of the exhibit. An examination of such visual sources and their continued exhibition not only shows us the exclusive nature of historic practices of political and aesthetic representational strategies but also how these covert ideologies can be revealed to diverse contemporary audiences.
It will be argued that the engaging with such exhibitions offers American Studies a positive and radical model of making manifest the hidden histories of American identity visual formation

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