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2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 13 pages || Words: 3314 words || 
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1. Prather, James. and Hoffman, Marvin. "Party Independence: Revisiting the Question of the Independent Voter and the Importance of Party Identification" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p66180_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: National Election Studies data from 1952-2000 is analyzed to determine whether the conventional wisdom (low participation, low interest in politics, lower education levels) remains true over time or whether these impressions are time-bound.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 47 pages || Words: 14397 words || 
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2. Sajjad, Tazreena. "The Independence of Independent Human Rights Commissions in Post-Conflict Environments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p181044_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The challenges facing national human rights mechanisms in post-conflict environments are enormous. From reconstituting the national human rights framework to taking on the indomitable task of rebuilding each of the human rights infrastructures, independent human rights commissions in particular play an instrumental role in redefining the human rights culture of their countries. Added to these responsibilities is the reality of functioning within a space which in many ways is littered with the remnants of ethnic hostilities and political tensions from the conflict era. Several questions may be posed about how these mechanisms constitute their identities within the difficult context in which they function. How is this political space constantly negotiated by national human rights mechanisms in their effort to bring the human rights doctrine into the mainstream? How are the strategies or mechanisms defined and developed for each of the areas of their mandate? What are the specific challenges that they face in maintaining the ?independent? nature of their work? And finally, how much of their commitment to matters of transitional justice and truth and reconciliation work is permitted or curtailed because of the highly politicized nature of such work? This paper is an attempt to capture the nuanced and complex political space which national human rights mechanisms such as independent human rights commissions occupy in the aftermath of conflict and how they define their commitment to the political project of pursuing transitional justice. Using Afghanistan and East Timor as case studies, the paper will argue that the challenge of independent human rights commissions and the success and failure of their work continue to lie in the negotiation for political space in an often volatile and determinedly hostile post-conflict environment.

2015 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 178 words || 
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3. Bodnaruk Jazayeri, Karen. "Judicial Independence as a Latent Variable: A Cross-National Measure and Analysis of Judicial Independence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 15, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p971846_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using a variety of country-level indicators, I estimate a Bayesian latent variable model and construct a measure of de facto judicial independence. Most literature in this area measures judicial independence using dichotomous or ordered scales obtained from similar data sources, or from empirical models using these data sources. Existing measures are problematic for several reasons: first, behavioral independence cannot be observed directly in scientific studies and second, the data is limited to short temporal domains. My approach offers a way to mediate the challenges found in these data by conceptualizing independence as a latent variable. A Bayesian measurement model combines a number of country-level indicators theorized to influence judicial independence. I apply the resulting measure, which is available for 40 years and 200 states, to a replication of “Testing the Effects of Independent Judiciaries on the Likelihood of Democratic Backsliding” (Gibler and Randazzo 2011). Preliminary results suggest that this latent variable concept produces a measure that aligns with conceptual definitions of de facto independence, as well as, allowing for greater space and time coverage than existing measures.

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Borum Chattoo, Caty., Aufderheide, Patricia., Alexander, Michele. and Green, Chandler. "U.S. Public Broadcasting Under Political Threat: Analysis of Independent Television Service’s Independent Documentaries, 2007-2016" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1362810_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Fifty years after the passage of the Public Broadcasting Act, this study examines the way in which TV documentaries produced by the publicly-funded Independent Television Service (ITVS) represent the America they are mandated to portray. At a time when public broadcasting funding is in question, this is a relevant concern. Using content analysis of ITVS film archival data, this study of a decade (2007-2016) of U.S. public television documentaries (N=342) shows that the representation of American realities on public TV broadly reflects American demographics (as reflected by the U.S. Census) and social concerns, as reflected in a decade (2007-2016) of aggregated Gallup monthly “Most Important Problem Facing the Country” poll data. ITVS-funded filmmakers are disproportionately female and diverse, and come from 33 states. Films portray life in all quadrants of the U.S., in both rural and urban communities. Public TV documentaries represent a geographically and ethnically diverse America.

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