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2013 - 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 198 words || 
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1. Kennedy, John. "“All Clumps of People Turn Out to be Individuals on Close Inspection”: Zora Neale Hurston and the Politics of Individualism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies, The Westin Hotel - Downtown, Indianapolis, ID, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p648239_index.html>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Abstract: Zora Neale Hurston wrote her fiction and ethnography during a period of immense political, economic, and social change. The formative years of her early life and the upheavals produced by the roaring twenties, Great Depression, and steady accelerating Civil Rights Movements all influenced Hurston and how she saw the world and her role in it. The stories and characters she so vividly brought to life became a way for her to espouse her opinions to a wider audience. Those opinions boldly refused to seek accommodation with the conventional views of the era; revealing her belief system. This paper will focus on Hurston’s political beliefs about the importance of pragmatic individualism, which structured how she thought about many issues including race and marriage (including love) in America during the mid twentieth century. It will argue that Hurston’s life experience molded her individualism, which was reflected thematically in her literary accomplishments. I will analyze how Hurston described her political philosophy through plot and character development in her short story, “John Redding Goes to Sea,” her novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God, her autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road, and her ethnographic collection of folktales, Every Tongue Got to Confess.

2015 - 15th Biennial Conference of the Society for Community Research and Action Words: 152 words || 
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2. Ecker, John., Aubry, Tim., Farrell, Susan., Klodawsky, Fran. and Hay, Elizabeth. "Individual, Housing, and Neighbourhood Level Predictors of Psychological Integration Among Vulnerably Housed and Homeless Individuals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 15th Biennial Conference of the Society for Community Research and Action, UMass Lowell Inn & Conference Center, Lowell, MA, Jun 25, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p995756_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Psychological integration is a benchmark within community psychology practice. The current longitudinal study evaluated the individual, housing, and neighbourhood level predictors of psychological integration among a population of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. Participants were recruited at homeless shelters, meal programs, and rooming houses in Ottawa and participated in three in-person interviews, each approximately one year apart. Prospective and cross-sectional predictors of psychological integration at follow-up 1 and follow-up 2 were examined. There were 397 participants at baseline, 341 at follow-up 1 and 320 at follow-up 2. A hierarchical multiple regression uncovered several significant predictors of psychological integration. The most salient and common predictors were being older, having greater social support, living in high quality housing, and residing in a neighbourhood with a positive impact. Implications for service provision and policy advancements to better address psychological integration among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals are discussed.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8187 words || 
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3. Choi, HwaJung., Elo, Irma. and Heisler, Michele. "Are Individuals Living in More Equal Counties Healthier than Individuals Living in More Unequal Counties?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1006585_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using a propensity score matching technique, we examined the contextual effect of income inequality on health. After removing those who newly/recently moved into the area (<5 years), we further assessed which SES group showed an association between income inequality and health.
Bivariate analysis results from the unmatched sample show that adults living in high income-inequality counties have poorer health in all health measures (SRH, ADL, IADL, blood pressure, CESD, stroke, diabetes, psychiatric problem) except for heart problem. After propensity score matching, only the adverse association with self-rated health status (SRH) remained statistically significant at the 5% level. Psychiatric problems were also significantly more prevalent for adults living in high income-inequality counties when we compare adults who lived in the area at least 15 years. The significant association with poorer SRHS is likely to be observed between 40th and 80th wealth percentiles, between 40th and 90th income percentiles, and among individuals without college education.
The question of whether income inequality has a causal effect on health has been argued for several decades. Our findings suggest adverse effect of income inequality may exist in terms of self-rated general health status and psychiatric problem for middle- and high- economic groups (except for very high).

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Pages: unavailable || Words: 4644 words || 
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4. Kidder, Paul. "Individualism and the Single Individual: Kierkegaard and Tocqueville’s America" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1248308_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Alexis de Tocqueville’s account of 19th-century American political culture puts great emphasis on Americans’ belief in individualism and the authority of individual opinion. Yet despite their passionate profession of such beliefs he finds that Americans are, in fact, unusually susceptible to the power of public opinion. This ironic state of affairs results in public opinion exercising its authority in unnoticed and unsuspected ways, narrowing the range of public discourse and creating an insidious psychological vehicle for social biases and, potentially, tyranny of the majority. Tocqueville goes so far as to say, “I do not know any country where, in general, less independence of mind and genuine freedom of discussion reign than in America.” Tocqueville’s account of this state of affairs forms a striking parallel to features of Søren Kierkegaard’s account of Danish society and “Christendom” generally. For this reason Kierkegaard’s theories regarding what it means to be a “single individual,” or authentic human subject, provide a basis for addressing the question as to what might constitute a more consistent individualism within the American context than the somewhat naïve individualism described by Tocqueville. Genuine individualism, for Kierkegaard, must be won through efforts of introspection, self-appropriation, and critical reflection on social life, posing a much greater challenge to the individual than is typically associated with the formation of opinions in a democratic culture.

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