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2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 495 words || 
1. Zenczak-Skerrett, Nora., Proulx, Kerrie. and Aboud, Frances. "Engaging Preschool-aged Children in Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Learning from ChildFund Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: In Sumba, Indonesia, ChildFund International and its local and international partners set out to understand how to better protect young children and their families from harm in disaster-prone vulnerable communities.

Undertaking a three-pronged program approach, the team measured changes in the quality of the preschools, children’s awareness of disaster risk reduction (DRR), and caregivers’ knowledge and interactions with children.

Children living in small island developing nations and other coastal regions are among the most vulnerable to the damaging effects of climate change. The impact of climate risks on children’s development are diverse, ranging from poor health, injury, and even loss of life and increased psychological stress. Extreme weather also impacts children’s learning as they may miss or drop out as a result or the need to help their families cope with extreme weather events. To respond to the multifaceted risks facing young children, ChildFund designed and implemented an innovative early childhood development (ECD) intervention in Indonesia that integrated DRR into ECD in an effort to protect children against extreme weather events by creating more resilient communities and safer environments.

To evaluate the intervention, ChildFund and its partners utilized a quasi-experimental evaluation design including a posttest-only comparison of a randomized group of 102 6-year-old children in the ChildFund program and a comparison group of 101 children who attended government preschools in nearby villages. Quantitative data gathering relied on achievement testing, DRR knowledge assessment surveys, interviews, observation, and assessment of the learning environment. Qualitatively, the study utilized semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders including preschool tutors, primary school teacher or principals, and health cadre or village elders in each community.

The program had three key components. Firstly, the community-driven renovation and rebuilding of eight local preschools to make them more structurally sound and safer during extreme weather events, as well as the installation of water and sanitation facilities. Secondly, an effort to raise children’s awareness of safety precautions and emergency actions. Thirdly, to further their own knowledge and readiness, preschool tutors were trained on child protection during emergencies. Training included positive discipline techniques, child rights, and communication strategies which tutors’ mainstreamed into classroom management and teaching approaches.

The integrated preschool and DRR program found positive impacts in all three core areas. The program was found to improve safe physical environments in preschool settings. Second, the program enhanced children’s awareness of emergency warning signs and how to respond. Finally, the program enhanced preschool tutors’ knowledge of child protection and adult-child interactions. The study also revealed some challenges within the approach such as the need to incorporate climate change resilient nutrition program elements and to ensure DRR is well-integrated into the existing preschool curriculum to ensure tutors are not overburdened. The study is groundbreaking in its effort to engage very young children in disaster preparedness and response, empowering the youngest children to play a role in supporting their families and communities.1

1) Proulx, K., Aboud, F. Engaging Preschool-aged Children in Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia: Evidence from ChildFund Programme.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 212 words || 
2. Susanti, Bivitri. "Reading the Progress of Reform in Indonesia: The Politics of Law Making in Indonesia after New Order Regime" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Indonesia'a new state institutional arrangement following the fall of Suharto’s authoritarian regime has created a new site of political struggle. The shift of law-making power from the executive to the legislative changed the law making process from a closed and centered approach to a more open and participatory one. This situation has created a locus for Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to push their reform agendas, but at the same time it has also helped in creating opportunities for the politicians to make their interests felt, from reproducing the authoritarian and developmentalist characters of the old regime to applying faith-based legislations that are contrary to the plural society of Indonesia.

Following the change of the politics, foreign donors also shifted their strategies in legal assistance. They began to include assistances on issues that used to be sensitive during the authoritarian regime, such as human rights and anti-corruption.

This paper portrays the politics of law making in Indonesia after Suharto. The open space has been created to push the reform process, but the open space has also been used by various groups to shape the country through legislations. The pro-reformist dominated the law-making process in 1998-2004, but 2004-2006 can be seen as a turning point where the transition started to have a shift in the direction.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 427 words || 
3. Lee, Terence. "The Military and the Use of Force in Political Crises: Comparing Responses in 1986 Philippines and 1998 Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: In a political crisis, under what conditions will militaries comply with an authoritarian regime’s order to suppress demonstrations? This paper analyzes the cases of military non-compliance to the task of regime maintenance during the May 1998 Indonesian and February 1986 Filipino political crises during which major political demonstrations led to the collapse of the Suharto and Marcos regime respectively.
This paper argues that military insubordination of an authoritarian regime’s orders to suppress popular demonstrations occurs: (1) when there is intense intra-military conflict; and (2) arising from this contestation, the politically marginalized officer(s) gains domestic and foreign support for the non-compliant act against the authoritarian regime. The military’s non-compliance of orders to suppress political protests against authoritarian rule is the politically marginalized officer(s)’ response to eliminate the authoritarian regime and their rival(s) within the armed forces.
To provide a robust test of the intra-military conflict argument, I examine this proposition with an alternative explanation based on principal-agent models––militaries (agents) are likely to be subordinate to orders to use force on protestors if authoritarian regimes (principals) possess the institutional capacity to detect malfeasance and punish recalcitrant officers through personnel changes within the military organization.
The paper is organized in three parts. The first outlines the two theoretical arguments, and the second assesses the empirical evidence of the two cases vis-à-vis the two theories. The final part assesses the implications of the intra-military conflict proposition for the study of civil-military relations in authoritarian regimes.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 12624 words || 
4. Freedman, Amy. "Civil Society, Moderate Islam, and Politics in Indonesia and Malaysia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: What role do moderate Islamic organizations play in promoting democratization in Malaysia and Indonesia? What is the difference between large, grassroots organizations and newer more urban-based NGO’s? Is one type of organization more effective than the other? This paper looks at the changing dynamics of moderate or progressive Islamic organizations in Malaysia and Indonesia. Some of these groups receive funding and assistance from US sources like the Asia Foundation or USAID. Moderate, progressive, or "liberal" Islamic groups suffer from being perceived as "good" Muslims by US policy makers. Given this inadvertent association, can these organizations effectively promote democracy and human rights to the larger population when that population is so critical and angry at the United States? In other words, are Indonesians and Malaysians more likely to turn away from moderate and progressive Islamic ideas because they may seem to be linked to a US agenda of building liberalism? This paper looks at organizations such as the Liberal Islam Network in Indonesia and Sisters in Islam in Malaysia, as well as others to try and understand the conflict between moderate or progressive Islamic groups and more conservative Islamic forces and to evaluate the role such moderate organizations play in advocating for greater protection of rights and liberties.

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