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2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7847 words || 
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1. Yoo, Woohyun., Yang, JungHwan. and Cho, Eunji. "How Social Media Influences College Students’ Smoking Attitudes and Susceptibility: Focused on the Influence of Presumed Influence Model" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 14, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p640633_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Building on the influence of presumed influence model, this study examines how the expression and reception of smoking-related messages in social media influence college students’ positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Analysis of survey data from 366 college students suggests that the expression, not reception, of prosmoking messages has a direct effect on smoking susceptibility. In addition, the expression and reception of prosmoking messages indirectly influence positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility through perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and perceived smoking peer norms. However, both expression and reception of antismoking messages exhibit no direct effect on smoking outcomes. The only reception of antismoking messages indirectly affects positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility through perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and perceived smoking peer norms. Theoretical and practical implications for presumed influence research on social media in the context of health are further discussed.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 42 pages || Words: 14075 words || 
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2. Crow, Ryan. "The Dynamics of International Influence: The Relationship of Influence to Realist Conceptions of Power and the Shifting Utility of Influence as a Tool of Foreign Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253632_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The relationship between materially based or "hard" power and international influence has been understudied and misunderstood. Contemporary realist scholars have tended to underestimate the importance of influence, choosing to focus almost entirely on hard power considerations as drivers of state behavior. At the same time, liberal scholars have tended to misunderstand influence (often termed soft power) as something divorced from material capabilities. This study addresses this gap in understanding by examining the relationship between hard power and influence from a dynamic, realist perspective. By combining an understanding of states' shifting long-term relative power fortunes and a conceptualization of international influence informed by classical realist notions of prestige and status, the author is able to show that hard power resources play a major role in generating international influence. Increases materially-based power produce influence, but lags and various cultural/societal factors complicate the relationship so that there is not a one-to-one relationship between the two. The evidence also suggests that international influence plays a distinct, yet complimentary (rather than substitutive) role to hard power in shaping the behavior of other states, and this has implications for alliance formation and security. Great Britain, the United States and China are examined as case studies.

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