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2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7847 words || 
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1. Yoo, Woohyun., Yang, JungHwan. and Cho, Eunji. "How Social Media Influences College Students’ Smoking Attitudes and Susceptibility: Focused on the Influence of Presumed Influence Model" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 14, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2017-09-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p640633_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Building on the influence of presumed influence model, this study examines how the expression and reception of smoking-related messages in social media influence college students’ positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Analysis of survey data from 366 college students suggests that the expression, not reception, of prosmoking messages has a direct effect on smoking susceptibility. In addition, the expression and reception of prosmoking messages indirectly influence positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility through perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and perceived smoking peer norms. However, both expression and reception of antismoking messages exhibit no direct effect on smoking outcomes. The only reception of antismoking messages indirectly affects positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility through perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and perceived smoking peer norms. Theoretical and practical implications for presumed influence research on social media in the context of health are further discussed.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 42 pages || Words: 14075 words || 
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2. Crow, Ryan. "The Dynamics of International Influence: The Relationship of Influence to Realist Conceptions of Power and the Shifting Utility of Influence as a Tool of Foreign Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2017-09-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253632_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The relationship between materially based or "hard" power and international influence has been understudied and misunderstood. Contemporary realist scholars have tended to underestimate the importance of influence, choosing to focus almost entirely on hard power considerations as drivers of state behavior. At the same time, liberal scholars have tended to misunderstand influence (often termed soft power) as something divorced from material capabilities. This study addresses this gap in understanding by examining the relationship between hard power and influence from a dynamic, realist perspective. By combining an understanding of states' shifting long-term relative power fortunes and a conceptualization of international influence informed by classical realist notions of prestige and status, the author is able to show that hard power resources play a major role in generating international influence. Increases materially-based power produce influence, but lags and various cultural/societal factors complicate the relationship so that there is not a one-to-one relationship between the two. The evidence also suggests that international influence plays a distinct, yet complimentary (rather than substitutive) role to hard power in shaping the behavior of other states, and this has implications for alliance formation and security. Great Britain, the United States and China are examined as case studies.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 166 words || 
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3. Gray, Thomas. "The Limits of Electoral Influence in State Supreme Courts: Comparing Electoral and Elite Influence through Retention" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2017-09-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1080667_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many scholars have found evidence that elected judges are responsive to public opinion as a protection against being voted out of office. These studies tend to focus on particularly salient cases, such as death penalty decisions. I argue that electorates are weak in important attributes of information and monitoring that render them unable to consistently influence judicial behavior. Comparatively, governors and legislatures have institutional resources that make them effective overseers of their judicial agents. In this paper, I test those propositions by analyzing criminal law decision making in state supreme courts from 1995-2010 and show that – over many thousands of cases – there is little evidence of judicial responsiveness to public opinion by elected justices. Comparatively, I show that elites tasked with retention decisions (governors and legislatures) have detectable influence on decisionmaking. This research adds depth to the literature on retention effects and shows that some of the focus and worry about judicial elections may be misplaced and overstated.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 218 words || 
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4. Thorvaldsdottir, Svanhildur. "How to Win Friends and Influence the UN: Donor Influence on the UN Bureaucracy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2017-09-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1127556_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Are states able to influence the policy decisions of international institutions via their bureaucracies and, if so, under what conditions? Employing two distinct analyses of United Nations Programmes and Funds, this paper suggests an answer in the affirmative; that states are able to influence policy decisions of IOs by leveraging their bureaucracies, and describes a condition under which they are able to accomplish this. The paper demonstrates that major donors to UN agencies are disproportionately represented on the staffs of those agencies, and that this has distinct policy implications. In particular, the more staff that major donors have within the agencies, the more the agency's aid policy reflects those states' bilateral aid preferences. Furthermore, these results are not driven by the most powerful countries in the system, which suggests that this is an avenue of influence open to a considerable number of countries. These results indicate that the preferences of international bureaucrats are less independent than we have previously thought and that they may, indeed, be endogenous to the states that pushed for their hire to begin with. These findings speak to questions in the literature about when and how states are able to wield informal influence within IOs while also suggesting that more countries are able to use informal influence to their advantage than is usually thought.

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