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2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 42 pages || Words: 14075 words || 
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1. Crow, Ryan. "The Dynamics of International Influence: The Relationship of Influence to Realist Conceptions of Power and the Shifting Utility of Influence as a Tool of Foreign Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p253632_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The relationship between materially based or "hard" power and international influence has been understudied and misunderstood. Contemporary realist scholars have tended to underestimate the importance of influence, choosing to focus almost entirely on hard power considerations as drivers of state behavior. At the same time, liberal scholars have tended to misunderstand influence (often termed soft power) as something divorced from material capabilities. This study addresses this gap in understanding by examining the relationship between hard power and influence from a dynamic, realist perspective. By combining an understanding of states' shifting long-term relative power fortunes and a conceptualization of international influence informed by classical realist notions of prestige and status, the author is able to show that hard power resources play a major role in generating international influence. Increases materially-based power produce influence, but lags and various cultural/societal factors complicate the relationship so that there is not a one-to-one relationship between the two. The evidence also suggests that international influence plays a distinct, yet complimentary (rather than substitutive) role to hard power in shaping the behavior of other states, and this has implications for alliance formation and security. Great Britain, the United States and China are examined as case studies.

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7847 words || 
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2. Yoo, Woohyun., Yang, JungHwan. and Cho, Eunji. "How Social Media Influences College Students’ Smoking Attitudes and Susceptibility: Focused on the Influence of Presumed Influence Model" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 14, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p640633_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Building on the influence of presumed influence model, this study examines how the expression and reception of smoking-related messages in social media influence college students’ positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility. Analysis of survey data from 366 college students suggests that the expression, not reception, of prosmoking messages has a direct effect on smoking susceptibility. In addition, the expression and reception of prosmoking messages indirectly influence positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility through perceived peer expression of prosmoking messages and perceived smoking peer norms. However, both expression and reception of antismoking messages exhibit no direct effect on smoking outcomes. The only reception of antismoking messages indirectly affects positive smoking attitudes and smoking susceptibility through perceived peer reception of antismoking messages and perceived smoking peer norms. Theoretical and practical implications for presumed influence research on social media in the context of health are further discussed.

2011 - 96th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 20291 words || 
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3. Tidwell, III, Wylie. "Colonial South Carolina's Influence on The American Constitution: How Colonial Law Influenced America" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, Oct 04, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p515727_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research examines whether or not the colonial statutes of South Carolina, created between 1600 and 1787, helped to shape the American Constitution regarding race and the institution of slavery. The research suggests that South Carolina’s persistence and insistence that the institution of racial slavery be protected by the Constitution was a major influence on the perception of slavery by its framers. The Constitution was the document that ultimately encompassed most of the political thoughts and issues found in colonial America.
This research was based on the premise that the field of Black Studies was in need of an analysis and comparison of the similarities between the racism that existed in colonial America and racism after the adoption of the American Constitution and its amendments.
The researcher found that South Carolina’s diligence and insistence during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, that racial slavery be protected by the Constitution, was the major influence on how the American Constitution would be worded, in reference to slavery as a means of representation and possible economical gains.
The conclusions drawn from the findings suggest that, the American Constitution emerged as an inherently racist document supporting slavery as a means of furthering American economic needs. The colonists in all the British colonies (South Carolina included) passed a series of laws that helped maintain the structure of slavery and gave them control over their slave labor. However, colonial South Carolina statutes, more than other colonies, were developed to maintain slavery. These statutes were later supported by the American legal system.

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8110 words || 
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4. Carr, Caleb. and Hayes, Rebecca. "The Effect of Disclosure of Third-Party Influence on an Opinion Leader’s Credibility and Influence in Two-Step Flow: Public Relations via Social Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p633011_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Online media such as blogs have allowed the link between a brand message sponsor and an opinion leader to vary in its explicitness, and for opinion leaders to strategically manage third-party influence, such as PR efforts, that may bias their opinions. A national sample (N =405) participated in an online experiment in which they viewed a product review in a blog that varied in its acknowledged (explicit, implicit, and impartial) third-party influence. Results indicate the explicitness of disclosure of the link between the sponsor of the message and the opinion leader have significant influence on the perceived credibility of the opinion leader, and in-turn on individuals’ attitudes regarding the product being reviewed and their purchasing intentions. Findings are discussed with relation to two-step flow and how theorists and practitioners may need to evaluate and explicate the connection between PR efforts and information mavens online.

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