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2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 25 pages || Words: 12510 words || 
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1. Schmidt, Vivien. "From Historical Institutionalism to Discursive Institutionalism: Explaining Institutional Change in Political Economy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p278339_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: To explain change in comparative political economy, a ‘discursive institutionalist’ approach focused on ideas and discourse is a necessary complement to older ‘new institutionalist’ approaches. Historical institutionalist approaches have difficulty explaining change, tend to be static and equilibrium-focused; and even where they get beyond this through accounts of incremental change, they are more descriptive than they are explanatory of change. The turn to rational choice institutionalist approaches for agency, for ‘micro-foundations’ to historical institutionalist ‘macro-patterns,’ also does not solve the problems of historical institutionalism. A turn to discursive institutionalism could. Using examples of reforms in national political economies and welfare states, the paper illustrates how ideas and discourse help explain the dynamics of change (and continuity).

2006 - International Studies Association Words: 158 words || 
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2. Dixon, Gregory. "Changing IGO Institutions and State Behavior: How Domestic Institutions Affect State Behavior in the Context of IGO Institutional Change" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p97920_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: As the UN, the EU, and several other significant IGO?s debate changes to their core institutions, institutional design at the IGO level has become a topic of great discussion among policy-makers. The design of IGO institutions is an important consideration in examining how member states act. Changes in IGO institutions will cause changes in member states? behavior, but these changes will not affect all member states equally. The character of the changes in the IGO institutions should affect member states differently depending on the nature of their domestic political institutions. Comparing dispute behavior at the GATT and WTO, this paper demonstrates how the change in the Dispute Settlement Mechanism within the trade regime had a greater effect on democratic states than one their non-democratic counterparts. At a time when a number of major IGO?s are seeking to change their institutions, this paper adds an important element to consider how such changes will affect the behavior of member states.

2005 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 11317 words || 
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3. Gronke, Paul. and Cook, Timothy. "The Institutions-Incumbents Gap: A Reassessment of Institutional Support and Approval for Members of Institutions in American Government" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Inter-Continental Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Jan 06, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p67278_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper, we reevaluate the claim of a “gap” between support for institutions and support
for members, forwarded more forcefully by Hibbing and Theiss-Morse (1995). Here we show
that the institutions / members gap is historically contingent. In 2002, six months after the
terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, and after an historic rally in public acclaim for
social and political institutions, we far a far smaller gap. The constellation of public opinion
toward institutions, then, seems to be more responsive to public events than some previous
theories have found.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 36 pages || Words: 9963 words || 
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4. Fuller, Douglas. "Importing Institutions to Enhance Performance: How Foreign Financial Institutions Ameliorate Institutional Deficiencies in China’s Political Economy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/DOWNLOAD>. 2020-01-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p278572_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper argues that there has been a common assumption in the field of comparative political economy that the key institutions of a given domestic political economy are relatively mutually reinforcing and tightly interconnected with at best some small friction in the interaction between the key parts. Mutually reinforcing and tightly interconnected institutions are ones with institutional complementarities where the arrangements in one institutional domain impact the difference in utility in another institutional domain. This paper dubs this assumption the holistic view of comparative political economy. Within the holistic view, interaction with foreign institutions can only lead to two outcomes. In the robust outcome, foreign institutions have little effect on the operation of domestic institutions. In the fragile outcome, the intrusion of foreign institutions disrupts the delicate balance of institutions within the domestic political economy with grave consequences for the economy.
Arguing against the assumption that the holistic view is correct, the paper provides evidence of successful use of importing foreign institutions in China. Importing institutions is utilizing the institutional effects of institutions located abroad. It is not imitation or transfer of foreign institutions to be re-built within the domestic political economy. In the case of China, the financial institutions of advanced capitalism have encouraged technological development that China’s own financial institutions failed to provide. Thus, this importation of foreign institutions far from being disruptive has had an ameliorative effect on China’s economy and calls into question the basic assumption of the holistic view.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 242 words || 
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5. King, Rosalind., Diana, Augusto. and Rubio, Mercedes. "17. National Institutes of Health Research Funding Opportunities, National Institutes of Health" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2020-01-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1038435_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Abstract: NIH’s mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and disability. The goals of the agency are: to foster fundamental creative discoveries, innovative research strategies, and their applications as a basis for ultimately protecting and improving health; to develop, maintain, and renew scientific human and physical resources that will ensure the Nation's capability to prevent disease; to expand the knowledge base in medical and associated sciences in order to enhance the Nation's economic well-being and ensure a continued high return on the public investment in research; and to exemplify and promote the highest level of scientific integrity, public accountability, and social responsibility in the conduct of science.

In realizing these goals, the NIH provides leadership and direction to programs designed to improve the health of the Nation by conducting and supporting research: in the causes, diagnosis, prevention, and cure of human diseases; in the processes of human growth and development; in the biological effects of environmental contaminants; in the understanding of mental, addictive and physical disorders; and in directing programs for the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information in medicine and health, including the development and support of medical libraries and the training of medical librarians and other health information specialists.

The National Institutes of Health is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. Each has its own specific research agenda.

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