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2007 - NCA 93rd Annual Convention Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5568 words || 
1. xie, shuang. "Intercultural Competence and Intercultural Education: Reflection and Expectation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 93rd Annual Convention, TBA, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This essay is a critical analysis of the current intercultural education, aimed at locating the problems and suggesting possible solutions. Based on a comprehensive investigation of the extant intercultural theories and conceptualizations of intercultural competence, I find two problems with intercultural education: 1) the intercultural education has been inappropriately reduced to individuals, that is, whether the intercultural communication can be successful is solely attributed to individual competence; 2) the intercultural education has been ignoring (consciously or unconsciously) the power relations embedded in intercultural communication.
To address these problems, given that there is inherent power difference in intercultural encounters, I suggest that it is urgent for scholars and educators to acknowledge the existence of power in intercultural communication and to perceive intercultural communication in the context of social power. As a consequence, the education of intercultural communication needs a new direction. I argue that critical pedagogy can help intercultural education go beyond the cultivation of individual competence and deal with the social power relations in the context of intercultural communication. At the end, I invite scholars to be reflexive on theorizing intercultural communication. After all, theories determine the direction of education and practices.

2012 - 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 727 words || 
2. Ganley, DeLacy., Paik, Susan., Luschei, Thomas. and Witenstein, Matthew. "Intercultural contact hypothesis: Can a 6-week intensive experience foster intercultural perspectives?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Apr 22, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
The TEA (Teaching for Excellence and Achievement) Program is co-sponsored by the US Department of State, IREX, and designated host universities. The TEA Program involves approximately experienced middle- or high-school teachers from around the world (called TEA Fellows) attending a six-week professional development program at a host university in the United States. The TEA Program strives to help the Fellows develop expertise in their subject areas, enhance their teaching skills, and increase their knowledge about the United States. The professional development program includes university coursework in teaching methodologies, lesson planning, teaching processes and strategies; a clinical experience in a local middle- or high-school; and cultural and civic activities.

The 2011 TEA Program involved approximately 148 TEA Fellows and four host universities (approximately 22 Fellows were at one of the four host universities.) Participating Fellows were from Europe, South and Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Near East and the Western Hemisphere and were selected through a competitive process coordinated by the US Department of State (and its embassies) and IREX. Host universities were selected through a competitive process overseen by IREX.

This study examines the degree to which one host university’s TEA Program facilitated intercultural relations among its TEA Fellows. Specifically, this study seeks to address the following question: How does the TEA Program (and its activities and experiences) help participating Fellows embrace an intercultural perspective?

TEA Program (provides the 4 criteria below)
Contact/ Exposure (“cause”)  Cultural Sensitivity & Awareness (“effect”)
Ex: Program Activities/ Experiences Ex: Attitudes, Beliefs

The Contact Hypothesis has been described as one of the best ways to improve relations among groups that are experiencing conflict or stereotype (Brown & Hewstone, 2005; Wright, 2009). Allport (1954) is often credited with the development of the Contact Hypothesis, also known as Intergroup Contact Theory. According to the hypothesis, if certain criteria are present, interpersonal contact can be an effective way to reduce prejudice and negative stereotyping and, conversely, to promote an understanding and even appreciation of different points of view (Allport, 1954; Whitley & Kite, 2010). In summary, Allport argues that prejudice and discrimination stem from overgeneralizations and that it is through “properly managed” interpersonal contact that an individual has the opportunity to realize the fallacies his/her overgeneralized “mental models” (Senge, 1990).

Purposefully designed contact guided by Allport’s theoretical frame of the Contact Hypothesis has been used to address prejudice in a number of settings. Some researchers, for example, have looked at Contact Hypothesis in relationship to prejudice directed at homosexuals (Herek, 1987; Herek & Capitanio, 1996; Herek & Glunt, 1993). Others have looked at it in light of race relations on athletic teams (Brown, Brown, Jackson, Sellers, & Manuel, 2003).

This study puts a twist on traditional Contact Hypothesis through the coining and use of a variation hypothesis: Intercultural Contact Hypothesis. Specifically, it seeks to examine if a “managed” experience can help a participant to embrace an intercultural perspective.

N=22 TEA Fellows.

Qualitative and quantitative data will be collected from the twenty-two TEA Fellows. Data collection will primarily involve: 1) information gleaned from a lengthy reflection exercise done with the Fellows that aims to help them “sensemake” their experience and its significance; and 2) information obtained from individual interviews conducted with each Fellow. All data will be collected in the last week of the Fellows’ six-week program.

The study will utilize a mixed-method design so that data can be triangulated.

The study has not yet been conducted. Data will be collected in November 2011 and analyzed in the Winter of 2011/2012. Results will be tied directly to the study’s research questions.

This study will add to the theoretical construct of Contact Hypothesis. One main contribution is in its coining of and use of the term “intercultural contact hypothesis.”

This study is also valuable because it sheds light on whether or not a program like TEA has the capacity to impact a participant’s preconceived stereotypes or prejudices. If it does, this lends credibility and support to the rationale and funding of such programs. If not, it raises the question of whether or not such programs are justifiable and/or fiscally wise.

Available upon request.

2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 250 words || 
3. Fuentes, Rocio. "They had us jumping through hoops: Agency and intercultural education in an indigenous intercultural education project in Mexico" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This presentation will explore the issue of agency, understood as the socioculturally mediated capacity to act (Ahearn, 2001), in a community-based intercultural education project in Mexico. Intercultural education in Mexico has been implemented as a policy for addressing the deficiencies of the educational services provided to the indigenous groups, but also as a way to teach the general student population skills and attitudes conductive to the intercultural dialogue between the mainstream mestizo population and the indigenous communities, and hence to a more democratic society (CGEIB, 2006). The implementation of intercultural education as an official policy implies changes at several levels. The Indigenous educational institutions and communities are supposed to be active participants in school governance and curricular development; however, a critical discourse analysis (Van Dijk, 1997) of policy documents and ethnographic interviews with a group of policy brokers and indigenous teachers shows the shortcomings of the government-sanctioned intercultural model, and the stances of the indigenous teachers regarding their discursive construction as agentive social actors in policy documents vis á vis their subordinated interaction with the educational authorities and the administrative limitations imposed to their classroom practice and curricular proposals. The study exposes the ways in which the intercultural model reproduces the status quo and limits the agency of indigenous individuals and groups, but also the role of discursive mechanisms in the resistance and contestation of dominant educational policies. This study contributes to the panel’s discussion about exploring ways of understanding intercultural education and the challenges that grass roots projects face.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Words: 132 words || 
4. Wongbandue, Nanatthun. "A case study on d’CATCH Project as a intercultural workshop for media literacy and intercultural understanding: its design and process" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: The d’CATCH project is an educational program for media literacy and intercultural understanding for Asian university students. International workshop has been held every year since 2003. It started two countries and now becomes five countries -China, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand and the Philippines and had guest-countries.
This study shows how d’CATCH designed for realizing its educational goals and tells the process how this project has adapted to social and technological changes for 13 years.
Each university takes turn in hosting the project to give students an opportunity to exchange their views and to understand differences among the countries, particularly in culture, through video producing. Besides cultural understanding, this project also aims to encourage students to realize the power of communicators can bring peace and understanding to Asian society.

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