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2012 - International Communication Association Words: 483 words || 
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1. Pearce, Katy., Rice, Ronald., Slaker, Janine. and Ahmad, Nida. "Demographics, Means of Access, and Internet Activities: How Do Mobile-Only Internet Users Differ From PC-Only Internet Users?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown, Phoenix, AZ, <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p561256_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Internet access can have notable implications for the social and economic lives of those fortunate enough to have access to and use it. However, as the digital divide literature shows, the means by which an individual accesses the Internet is both demographically- and socially-driven. A more subtle question is whether, and how, the means of access (e.g., PC- or mobile-based, etc.) and demographic differences influence the ways in which the individual uses the Internet (e.g., different online activities, from email to searching for information to downloading music). This study moves the discussion of device-driven differences in Internet use into a new stage, building upon the small but active previous research in this area (e.g. Chigona, Beukes, Vally, & Tanner, 2009; Donner & Gitau, 2009; Donner et al., 2011; Kreutzer, 2009) and takes inspiration from Rice and Katz (2003)’s general argument of comparing Internet and mobile phone users.
This mixed-methods study of Armenian Internet use has three goals:
(1) to analyze the demographic differences (economic well-being, education, age, gender, and regional differences) between non-users, mobile-only Internet users, PC-only Internet users, and those who use both mobile- and PC-based Internet, based on a large, nationally representative sample from Armenia
(2) to describe the Internet activities (e.g., used the Internet for work, email, search engine, play games, download music, instant messaging, social networking sites, blog, watch videos, or online news) engaged in by Internet users accessing from different devices, and to analyze the influences of both demographics and access device on those activities, and
(3) to present the quantitative and qualitative findings in a unified fictional narrative by textually and visually portraying fictionalized but tangible demographic and activity representations of prototypical users.
Selected results include:
(1) All the demographic variables except gender differ, in varying combinations, across the four categories of use: non-use, PC-based only, mobile-based only, and both PC- and mobile-based. Non-users rated reasons for their non-adoption, ranging from lack of access to being too old.
(2) PC-based use, and combined PC- and mobile-based use are explained by all demographics except gender, while mobile-based use is explained by age, gender, and urban region.
(3) Engagement in most of the Internet-based activities varied by all the demographic variables except gender. However, almost all of this is due to the influence of demographic variation among PC-based Internet users. Further, interaction effects between demographics and device type on activities also occurred.
Part (3) is both novel, and, we hope, insightful. The value of producing narratives and personas (see Putnam, Koko, & Wood, 2012) is threefold: (a) textual and visual representations of quantitative results bridge methodological divides, (b) personifying results allows for the research context, in this case a developing country, to be effectively conveyed, and (c) with the interest in mobile Internet for development and policy purposes, such a format may make the results and implications much more accessible to a broader audience.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Ferrari, Elisabetta. "What “The Internet Requires”: The Discourse Of Internet Exceptionalism In The Italian Declaration Of Internet Rights" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1103408_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 2015 a special Committee of the Italian Parliament released a Declaration of Internet Rights, a document intended to chart the rights and duties of citizens in the digital age. Using publicly available transcripts of the meetings of the Committee that drafted the Declaration, citizens’ public comments and press coverage, I map the discourses surrounding the Declaration.
I identify a specific discourse employed by the Committee: “Internet exceptionalism”, the idea that the Internet is so exceptional that it requires us to think differently about it and create specific policies for it. I also reconstruct alternative discourses employed by the media and the public.
I argue that the discourse of Internet exceptionalism operates as a legitimizing tool for the actors involved in the creation of the Declaration: it justifies their taking action, but it also casts a positive light on them, in virtue of their association with digital technologies.

2016 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 118 words || 
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3. Esarey, Ashley. "Chinese Internet or Internet in China? Internet Usage in Comparative Perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1073246_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper considers the extent to which Chinese internet usage is determined by culture, influenced by domestic political institutions, and affected by global technology. By viewing Chinese internet use in a comparative perspective, with an emphasis on users in China and Taiwan, this study highlights Chinese behaviors and preferences that have been distinctive, partly as the result of the state’s outsized role in regulating corporate service providers and controlling usage, and considers user patterns that have loosely followed global trends. Increasingly, Chinese preferences are expressed on platforms and applications oriented primarily toward users from the PRC, creating divergences between users in China and elsewhere as well as “information asymmetries” that disconnect China from global networks, conversations, and identities.

2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8446 words || 
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4. Deursen, Alexander., Van Dijk, Jan. and Peters, Oscar. "The Older the Better: Rethinking Internet Skills. The Role of Gender, Age, Education, Internet Experience, and Internet Use (TOP Faculty Paper)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 21, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p402778_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper focuses on one of the factors that appears to be important in several conceptualizations of how to approach the digital divide; the differential possession of Internet skills. Two large-scale performance tests were conducted to measure both medium related (basic operations and navigation and orientation) and content related (information searching and using the Internet for personal benefits) Internet skills. Using structural equation modelling, the results showed that age has a negative influence to medium related skills. The younger generations performed better on these skills. However, age positively contributes to the level of content related skills, meaning that older generations perform better than the younger. Educational attainment appears significant for both medium and content related Internet skills. Internet experience only contributes to the medium related skills. It appears that content related skills do not grow with years of Internet experience and amount of time spent online weekly.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 6939 words || 
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5. Park, Hyung Lae. and Jang, Jae won. "Internet Effects on Voting:Political Internet Users VS Non-Political Internet Users" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p82423_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Theory: Recent Internet related
literatures showed that the Internet reinforces likely voters but fail
to recruits unlikely voters. However most researches did not account
the purpose of Internet usage, especially its use for political
purpose. Despite of uncountable political information within the
Internet, non-political internet users tend not to access political
information. Thus, Internet effects on voting are actually appeared
only among political-Internet users. Since netizens use the Internet
self-selectively, the research about the Internet effects on voting
should consider the purpose of the Internet usage and the degree of
Internet usage. Hypothesis: Since Internet is an active rather than
passive information access tool, political internet users are more
willingly to access political information than general Internet users.
It naturally reinforces likely voters to vote and recruits unlikely
voters to vote. However, for those non-political users as well as
non-users, the Internet is not a powerful political means no matter how
much they use the Internet.
Data: Telephone survey was conducted in the spring of 2003 (from March
to June) by Social Behavior Research Institution at Purdue University.
Method: Series of questions asked to measure respondents’ usage of
Internet for political purpose. Discriminant analysis is used for
clarifying likely voters and unlikely voters. Crosstable will be
produced to compare estimated turnout and actual turnout to see whether
Internet performs reinforce role or recruitment role among political
Internet users, general Internet users and non-users. Anticipated
result: For political users, both reinforcement role among likely
voters and recruitment role among unlikely voters will be confirmed.
For general Internet users, only reinforce role will be confirmed among
likely voters. However, there is no difference significantly between
general Internet users and non-users both reinforcement and recruitment
role indicating in fact no Internet effects for general Internet users
and non-users. Implication: Most Internet users are
specific-information finder rather than mindless suffers. The effects
of the Internet in political attitude as well as other attitude do
significantly rely on the degree of Internet usage and the purpose of
using Internet. To measure Internet effects appropriately, knowing how
much do they use and what their purposes is the first thing to do. It
will help Internet-Information-providers to draw maximum
effect.

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