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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 17 pages || Words: 5005 words || 
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1. Tranca, Oana. "Third Party Intervention Dilemma in Ethnic Crises: To Intervene and Fail or Not To Intervene at All?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-07 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p181553_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In an ideal world, every major ethnic crisis that has the potential to degenerate in open conflict should draw the attention of third parties at a stage where violence may still be kept under control. Concerns for regional and international stability and the danger of large scale casualties seem reasons enough to justify intervention. But is this an accurate reflection of reality? This paper seeks to assess how often third parties intervene in ethnic crises that threaten to spill-over in the international arena and what is the impact of interventions in preventing crisis escalation. The ethnic dimension of the crises is important for two main reasons. Traditionally ethnic issues are considered an internal affair of the state. However, recent studies have shown that ethnic conflicts often acquire international dimensions and need solutions involving third party intervention. Consequently, the first reason for analyzing ethnic crises is the recent salience of ethnic related regional threats. The second reason has more to do with methodology; by focusing on ethnic crises we insure a more uniform case universe.The data is drawn from the ICB database which is particularly adequate for this study because it captures not only the ethnic dimension but also the potential for internationalization of the conflict.The findings permit to infer on several subjects, such as the willingness of international actors to intervene in ethnicity driven crises, the role of preventive intervention and its impact on crisis abatement and finally, by assessing the impact of non-interventions when compared to the impact of failed intervention in ethnic crises, to draw a conclusion on future third party intervention strategies.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 8810 words || 
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2. Bruijn, Hans. and Voort, Haiko. "Intervening in the Financial System: Two Perspectives on Fairness and Effectiveness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-07 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p303916_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The world is currently faced with a financial crisis which might overhaul the global financial system. As a reaction to this crisis many experts perceive that the financial institutional system as well as its regulation has failed. However, the complexity of this system makes it hard to point out what’s the origin of this ‘failure’ and how regulators could intervene effectively and fairly.
In this paper we will first describe the causes and development of the financial crisis. We will then interpret our description with help of both hard systems theory, wherein a system could be described objectively and holistically, and social network theory, wherein any system is in the eye of the beholder. Based upon this description and interpretation we will develop a set of design principles for a new system of regulation, concentrating on US and European financial institutions. By doing this we’ll indicate the consequences for regulator’s interventions from both perspectives. How could they stimulate recovery of the financial system? Are they fair? What does ‘equality’ mean in this respect? We found that, although many journalistic and academic comments are inspired by a single perspective (or theory), only a combination of both perspectives provides an agenda for fruitful discussion about regulation of the financial system.

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 15859 words || 
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3. Cope, Sarah., Madfis, Eric. and Levin, Jack. "How Gender, Anonymity, and Social Norms affect Bystander Willingness to Intervene" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 14, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-07 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p411749_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper addresses the gap in the literature addressing the comparative reaction of bystanders to witnessing different types of crime. Specifically, we compare the likelihood of reporting being a bystander to an iPod theft, a physical assault, and a sexual assault. Using different survey versions, we also varied the relationship between the bystander and the offender (in some cases, the offender is the bystander’s good friend, in others, a stranger) and the factor of anonymity when reporting. Some 89% of respondents (n=393) said they were “likely” or “very likely” to report witnessing a physical assault but only 19% were “likely” or “very likely” to report a sexual assault. In a comparison of means, the iPod theft was the most likely to be reported (4.45 out of 5), followed by the physical assault (3.34), with the sexual assault in a distant third place (2.45). Overall, all respondents were unlikely to report the crime they witnessed (2.45 out of 5). Each of these interactions were statistically significant at the 0.0001 level. The role of bystander gender and social norms are considered as possible explanatory factors.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 141 words || 
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4. Sargeant, Elise. "Why Do People Intervene? Exploring Collective Efficacy in Four Communities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2019-12-07 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p429934_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The relationship between crime and collective efficacy has been the focus of numerous large scale studies. Findings in the U.S. and elsewhere strongly indicate that incidents of crime, victimization and disorder are significantly lower in communities where residents report a strong sense of social cohesion and a willingness to intervene in community problems. This relationship holds even in disadvantaged and/or ethnically heterogeneous neighborhoods. However, limited research has focused on why some communities demonstrate a capacity to self-regulate when others cannot. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with residents, community leaders and key informants from government institutions across four suburbs in Brisbane. By examining communities that reflect varying levels of collective efficacy, crime, and ethnic diversity, the findings from this research provides a more nuanced understanding of the processes and central institutions that engender collective efficacy and encourage community action.

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