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2003 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 147 words || 
1. Press, S. James. and Tanur, Judith. "The Relationship between Accuracy and Interval Length in the Respondent-Generated Interval Protocol" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Sheraton Music City, Nashville, TN, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the Respondent-Generated Interval (RGI) technique, respondents are asked to recall a numerical quantity by giving both a best estimate and an interval that bounds the values that the respondent thinks the recalled quantity might take. The RGI technique then estimates a population mean using a weighted average of the values given by the respondents. The weights are functions of the lengths of the intervals supplied by the respondents; longer intervals, assumed to represent less accurate recall, generate smaller weights than do shorter intervals, assumed to represent more accurate recall.

In this paper we examine this assumed relationship between accuracy of recall and length of interval. We use data from record-check surveys carried out on two college campuses. If the assumed relationship does not hold overall, we examine patterns in the data to attempt to identify subsets of respondents for which the relationship does hold.

2014 - ISAHP Pages: unavailable || Words: 2333 words || 
2. Entani, Tomoe. "GROUP DECISION AS APPROXIMATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERVAL WEIGHTS BY INTERVAL AHP" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISAHP, Grand Hyatt Hotel, Washington, D.C., Jun 29, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The individual decision in this study is denoted as interval weights of alternatives.
Based on the idea that the inconsistency among comparisons stems from the uncertainty of the weights in a decision maker's mind in giving them, the uncertain weight is assumed as interval in Interval AHP.
Then, the group interval weight is obtained as an approximation of the individual interval weights based on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of each decision maker.
The condition of the group decision is to have some common to all decision makers' for a consensus.
S/he is satisfied more with the group decision, as it reflects his/her decision more.
The satisfaction is defined as the range of the group decision supported by him/her.
While, s/he is dissatisfied with the group decision, when it is different from his/hers so that the dissatisfaction is defined as the range of the group decision which is not supported by him/her.
In the proposed model, the satisfaction and dissatisfaction is maximized and minimized, respectively, under the group decision condition.
As a result the deviations of the upper and lower bounds of the group and individual interval weights are minimized.

2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 797 words || 
3. Wang, Chenguang. "The Politically Embedded Law Clinic: An Acceptable Interval in the Development of Chinese Legal Education?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Clinical legal education provides law students the opportunity to develop their legal skills in practice while simultaneously increasing access to justice by the poor and socially marginalized groups. Seeking justice for the socially disadvantaged, however, often requires challenging vested and powerful interests. Therefore, clinical legal education in China risks demise before full development, as powerful societal interests may seek to stop a law clinic from pursuing its social mission.

The case of University of Maryland’s Environmental Law Clinic is instructive. Over the last few years, this clinic has pursued waterway pollution claims against Maryland chicken famers and the powerful chicken processing company funding their defense. Beyond the courts, the chicken farmers and chicken processing company have tried to close or weaken Maryland’s environmental law clinic through lobbying state legislators to pressure the clinic and reduce its funding. Even the Maryland governor, a graduate of the law school, has written a letter criticizing the clinic for suing an important state constituency, i.e., the chicken farmers. Fortunately, attempts to shut down the clinic have galvanized the U.S. community of lawyers, environmentalists and legal educators which successfully protected the clinic from those seeking to close it down.

Imagine the University of Maryland Law Clinic was litigating this same case in China. By now, powerful interests would have easily shut the clinic down. Indeed, there have been examples in China where law clinics pursue justice for weaker sectors of society, only to cause a backlash by more powerful groups, who then lobby powerful officials who, in turn, shut the clinic shut-down (or reduce it to a simulation moot-clinic, handling fake cases, void of the benefits of helping underserved citizens). Fortunately, Chinese clinical educators have a way to avoid a worst case scenario. They can embed their clinic in the existing Chinese political structures, gaining valuable political cover for their important social work.

Indeed, a number of Chinese law clinics have developed this way. For example, one Chinese labor law clinic operates within, and in cooperation with, the relevant labor arbitration commission, thus providing a controlled forum for law student’s to help workers resolve disputes with management. Similarly, women’s rights clinics (which mostly do conventional family law representation for female clients) often embed themselves within the All-China Women’s Federation to carry forward clinical work. Many general law clinics set up operations in space provided within local government offices. Positively, these arrangements help law clinics overcome challenges of clinic costs (clinical legal education is the most expensive form of legal education) and help them more easily locate clients in need of free legal services. Indeed, the presence of Chinese State next to, if not inside, the clinic may temper the tendency towards adversarial posturing by the parties, which might help resolve the relevant dispute more easily. It may also reduce the prospects of challenged, yet powerful, vested interests seeking to win disputes by simply shutting the clinic down.

The downside is that by embedding themselves within China’s political infrastructure, law clinics may sacrifice part of their independence, raising serious issues of whether client interests will be compromised within such a framework. It’s quite foreseeable in China, for example, that a labor arbitration board will counsel clinics not to pursue certain types of claims on behalf of clients or pressure clinics to settle client claims in ways that may not best serve the interest of the client. Similarly, the All-China Women’s Federation may dictate the operations of the embedded clinic, seriously impairing the independence of the lawyers and law students in representing individual clients. And, of course, the “politically embedded law clinic” structure raises troubling issues of how to protect client confidential information from being accessed by the State (or by outsiders through the State).

The proposed paper seeks to explore the nature of the politically embedded clinic in China, both its positive and negative attributes. Can an acceptable balance be reached between the state’s interest in controlling the clinic process--in the interest of a harmonious society and a happy China--with the clinic client’s need for independently legal counsel and zealous legal representation tasked to resolve conflicts in the best interest of the client? Does the politically embedded clinic actually lessen the prospects that powerful interest will try to close the clinic down—or simply provide an avenue for the powerful to emasculate the clinic without direct confrontation? Is the politically embedded clinic an acceptable, but temporary, compromise that allows clinical legal education to develop in China, until the time when law clinics are ready to operate more independently, and more aggressively, in a future China where the social space for justice lawyering is greater? These are the questions that will be raised, and hopefully answered, by the proposed paper.

2015 - Eleventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 138 words || 
4. Farias, Miriam. "Intervención Social del Estado: experiencia de análisis cualitativo en la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eleventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 20, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objetivo: Describir e interpretar los alcances, logros y desafíos de la política social desde la palabra de sus actores en el ámbito de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán.
Metodología: La investigación aborda el problema –objeto de estudio a través de un diseño cuanti-cualitativo, a partir de datos secundarios y primarios; un estudio descriptivo, se sustenta en diferentes tipos de triangulación -especialmente de datos y metodología-, y se apoya en el Método de Estudio de Caso. Empleamos un enfoque interpretativo, hermenéutico y constructivista, aplicamos entrevistas estructuradas con la intención de producir conocimientos significativos acerca de la ejecución de una política social en el contexto local.
Conclusiones: Giran alrededor del fenómeno objeto de estudio, así responder a los interrogantes planteados; discusiones y propuestas en torno a los alcances, logros y desafíos de una política pública social en el ámbito universitario.

2003 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 288 words || 
5. Lusinchi, Dominic. "Using RGI (Respondent Generated Interval) to gather factual information in a web survey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Sheraton Music City, Nashville, TN, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Respondent-generated intervals (“RGI”), a question item protocol promoted by statisticians Press and Tanur, promises to have a positive impact on survey data quality, both by reducing item nonresponse and by improving the accuracy of estimation.

In this experiment, we put this method (RGI) to test with a sample of electronics engineers each reporting on a unique integrated circuit (chip) design developed in 2002.

The treatment version of the questionnaire (a self-administered web survey) encourages respondents to provide a self-generated interval if they are unsure of the number for the physical quantity requested (e.g., number of transistors on the chip, number of bytes of embedded memory, etc.). Respondents in the control group receive no such encouragement and are just asked to provide the relevant number.

1) This experiment seeks to answer a question: Does the suggestion to provide an RGI reduce item nonresponse?

2) The second objective of this experiment is to contribute to the discussion of whether RGIs can provide more accurate estimates than are obtained by merely asking respondents for one number. Research has shown that when asked for a number whose exact value is unknown, people resort to an “anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic” which often results in biased values. The bias is due to the original anchor value, which acts as a tether preventing sufficient adjustment. Because RGIs promote the reporting of at least two values, this very process might well break the “pull” which the original anchor value has on a respondent’s ability to provide an unbiased estimate.

The purpose of this research is to elicit questions dealing with ways to help respondents reporting factual data to provide unbiased estimates of target quantities. The biases we are talking about here are cognitive in nature and not emotional (e.g., social desirability).

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