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2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Zehavi, Amos. and Breznitz, Dan. "Rethinking the Social Investment State: Investment in Ethnic Minorities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1123369_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Government support of disadvantaged ethnic minorities while generally extolled by international organizations (e.g., the EU or the OECD) is far from a given. This study argues that the Social Investment State (hereafter SIS) framework could be usefully employed to better understand the motivation for government support for minorities and also the form that it takes. In addition, based on a case study of Israeli government policy towards Arabs in Israel, this study offers new ways of thinking about the SIS, which helps address weaknesses in the extant theorization of the concept.
The concept of the SIS relates to government support of policies that boost the productive capabilities of the economically disadvantaged in society. Because an increase in productive capacities is likely to improve an individual's employability and to raise her market income, SIS' state programs are perceived as critical components of welfare policy. Thus, programs that focus on vocational training, general education, or job placements are all important examples of the SIS. Such programs that focus on "investment" in productivity are often contrasted with "consumption" welfare programs such as pensions or unemployment benefits. Some commentators have argued that in recent years developed industrial countries have transcended a narrow neoliberal emphasis on economic growth and are increasingly gravitating towards a social investment state model (Hemerijck 2012).
I argue, however, that the extant literature that deals with the SIS suffers from major empirical and theoretical weaknesses. First, at least based on macro-level evidence (e.g., aggregate spending on Active Labor Market Policies as share of GDP), the case for claiming that advanced industrial countries are undergoing a SIS transformation is weak. Second, a SIS orientation could be adopted for non-social reasons. In fact, SIS programs are compatible with a neoliberal focus on prioritizing economic growth over other values. This implies that accounts of SIS should reconsider the motivational foundation of this orientation.
In this paper, I utilize an exploratory study of government policy towards the Arab minority in Israel to illustrate how SIS type policies are executed in the context of aiding a disadvantaged minority. Analysis of this case study leads to three important observations. First, government investment in programs for the Arab public has increased primarily in investment-type programs such as education or Active Labor Market Policy and far less in consumption programs hence conforming to a SIS framework. However, this increase in investment is concentrated in the Arab public and does not reflect a general trend of pro-investment growth. Second, many of the investment programs for the Arab public are not associated with welfare state budgets but with other fields: creation of work places, support for technological innovation, or transportation. Third, the primary motivation for investment policy directed at Israeli Arabs is economic, not social. Government leadership views Arabs as sub-optimally employed human capital and therefore Arab economic advancement (especially given the fact that they constitute 20% of the public) is considered as a key to general economic growth.
This case study's insights help address the general weaknesses of SIS theory. First, the economic motivation for the adoption of SIS type policies in Israel suggests, that the SIS could in fact be one manifestation of neoliberalism. The rationale for embracing investment in the disadvantaged is compatible with a neoliberal worldview that prioritizes economic growth above all else. This also helps explain why, at times, SIS associated programs are promoted by right wing governments. Second, the Israeli study also suggests that if we can't find evidence of a growing SIS in aggregate spending figures, this could simply be because we are looking for SIS in the wrong places. One reason for this is because government investment programs narrowly target specific groups that are suffering from "market failures" in a way that is not true of the entire disadvantaged population. Another reason is that we are missing on investment in non-welfare state programs.

2016 - ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference Words: 100 words || 
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2. He, Lijun., Graterol- Alfonzo, Jessika. and Tep, Kilian. "From Grants to Investment: Exploring Philanthropic Foundation’s Motivation and Strategies from Grant-making to Impact Investing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Washington, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1153904_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A growing number of philanthropic foundations are adopting impact investment strategies in the United States. This research seeks to contribute to the scholarly research on foundations’ impact investing through two main objectives: to identify the actors and to analyze the strategies adopted for such a change. Researchers use qualitative research method, such as narrative analysis, to interview 10 American philanthropic foundations that have experienced the shift from grant-making only to impact investment. The result of this research will broaden the existing theory on the organizational change and provide practical implication for foundations that are interested in implementing this new strategy.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 12298 words || 
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3. Pinto, Pablo. and Pinto, Santiago. "The Politics of Investment: Partisanship and Sectoral Allocation of Foreign Direct Investment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 20, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p137621_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper attempts to establish whether foreign direct investment (FDI) reacts to changing political conditions in host countries. More specifically, we explore the existence of partisan cycles in FDI investment performance. First, we develop a model that predicts that the incumbent government’s partisanship -i.e.: its allegiance to labor or capital- should affect foreign investors’ decision to flow into different sectors. Next, we analyze the pattern of direct investment to OECD countries disaggregated by sector from roughly 1985 through 2000. We find evidence of the existence of such partisan cycles in the patterns of direct investment performance across countries and over time at the industry level. In particular, we observe that in countries that are governed by parties of the left, FDI tends to flow into industries associated with the production of food, textiles, machinery, and vehicles, financial intermediation, mining and quarrying, and utilities, and out of sectors such as construction and transportation. We also find preliminary evidence of a positive correlation between foreign investment and economy wide change in wages under left-leaning incumbents, which is consistent with the assumptions around which we build our model. Our tentative conclusion is that foreign direct investment seems to respond to partisan cycles: when parties of opposite ideologies alternate in power, FDI responds by flowing into those sectors in the host country where foreign capital is a complement of the factor of production owned by the core constituent of the incumbent party, and out of those sectors where it substitutes for the factor of production owned by that constituent.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 46 pages || Words: 12532 words || 
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4. Hicks, Brian. "Dissecting the Black-Box: Bilateral Investment Treaties and Global Investments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p250708_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Due to the potential for both immense payoffs and devastating losses created by the risky nature of capital investments, investors are assumed to search for the most stable and financially lucrative environments. It has been argued that third party enforcement and liberalizing economic reforms associated with multilateral trade agreements enhance investment stability and improve trade and investment flows into member nations, more than bilateral investment treaties (BITs). However, with the recent combined trends of the global increase in BIT numbers and enhancement of their relevance as international legal investment mechanisms, it appears as though the importance of BITs must be reassessed. Do multilateral corporations (MNCs) and international investors respond to national membership in BITs? Extant literature presents conflicting and inconclusive findings. However, previous studies evaluate BIT membership as a dichotomous variable and consider the structure of a BIT as a ‘black-box’. Therefore, one must also ask if variations in BIT design affect the amount MNCs are willing to invest. I plan to use pooled data for approximately 100 developing and developed nations from 1982 to 2004 to determine if BIT membership and variation leads to alterations in foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment (PI) flows. Specifically, I will be focusing on states that share investments with the United States and how mutual BIT memberships impact FDI and PI flows between the respective countries. Controlling for alternative explanations, I find evidence that BIT design dimensions have contrasting effects on the inward flows of various types of investments.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 39 words || 
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5. Schneiderman, David. "Investing in Democracy: Political Processes and Constitutional Presuppositions in International Investment Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-05-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311149_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The appearance of democracy in the contemporary world has been described by Wolin as occasional and fugitive. The privatisation of public authority, the reduction of citizenship to consumerism and democracy to shareholder equity are just some of the featu

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