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2016 - ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference Words: 100 words || 
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1. He, Lijun., Graterol- Alfonzo, Jessika. and Tep, Kilian. "From Grants to Investment: Exploring Philanthropic Foundation’s Motivation and Strategies from Grant-making to Impact Investing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA's 45th Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Washington, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1153904_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A growing number of philanthropic foundations are adopting impact investment strategies in the United States. This research seeks to contribute to the scholarly research on foundations’ impact investing through two main objectives: to identify the actors and to analyze the strategies adopted for such a change. Researchers use qualitative research method, such as narrative analysis, to interview 10 American philanthropic foundations that have experienced the shift from grant-making only to impact investment. The result of this research will broaden the existing theory on the organizational change and provide practical implication for foundations that are interested in implementing this new strategy.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 46 pages || Words: 15439 words || 
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2. Buthe, Tim. and Milner, Helen. "The Politics of Foreign Direct Investment into Developing Countries: Increasing FDI through Policy Commitment via Trade Agreements and Investment Treaties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Aug 20, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p59852_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) to the developing countries is a critical source of growth. The political factors that affect these flows are not well understood. This paper examines four factors that might affect FDI inflows into the developing world. First, it looks at an important domestic condition: the policies toward the capital account adopted by a country. Second, it looks at three international influences: WTO membership, the country’s participation in preferential trade agreements (PTAs), and its participation in bilateral investment treaties (BITs). Each of these provides a direct or indirect mechanism for reassuring foreign investors that the country will protect its property rights and allow profitability. They serve as credible signals to private investors of the government’s intentions because, at least for the international agreements, they are costly to renege on. Data for the developing countries since 1970 supports this claim. Countries with more capital account openness, who belong to the WTO, participate in more PTAs and more BITs have greater FDI inflows than otherwise, holding other factors constant. Joining international agreements then can provide a mechanism for attracting FDI and enhancing economic growth in poor countries.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 12298 words || 
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3. Pinto, Pablo. and Pinto, Santiago. "The Politics of Investment: Partisanship and Sectoral Allocation of Foreign Direct Investment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 20, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p137621_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper attempts to establish whether foreign direct investment (FDI) reacts to changing political conditions in host countries. More specifically, we explore the existence of partisan cycles in FDI investment performance. First, we develop a model that predicts that the incumbent government’s partisanship -i.e.: its allegiance to labor or capital- should affect foreign investors’ decision to flow into different sectors. Next, we analyze the pattern of direct investment to OECD countries disaggregated by sector from roughly 1985 through 2000. We find evidence of the existence of such partisan cycles in the patterns of direct investment performance across countries and over time at the industry level. In particular, we observe that in countries that are governed by parties of the left, FDI tends to flow into industries associated with the production of food, textiles, machinery, and vehicles, financial intermediation, mining and quarrying, and utilities, and out of sectors such as construction and transportation. We also find preliminary evidence of a positive correlation between foreign investment and economy wide change in wages under left-leaning incumbents, which is consistent with the assumptions around which we build our model. Our tentative conclusion is that foreign direct investment seems to respond to partisan cycles: when parties of opposite ideologies alternate in power, FDI responds by flowing into those sectors in the host country where foreign capital is a complement of the factor of production owned by the core constituent of the incumbent party, and out of those sectors where it substitutes for the factor of production owned by that constituent.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 46 pages || Words: 12532 words || 
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4. Hicks, Brian. "Dissecting the Black-Box: Bilateral Investment Treaties and Global Investments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p250708_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Due to the potential for both immense payoffs and devastating losses created by the risky nature of capital investments, investors are assumed to search for the most stable and financially lucrative environments. It has been argued that third party enforcement and liberalizing economic reforms associated with multilateral trade agreements enhance investment stability and improve trade and investment flows into member nations, more than bilateral investment treaties (BITs). However, with the recent combined trends of the global increase in BIT numbers and enhancement of their relevance as international legal investment mechanisms, it appears as though the importance of BITs must be reassessed. Do multilateral corporations (MNCs) and international investors respond to national membership in BITs? Extant literature presents conflicting and inconclusive findings. However, previous studies evaluate BIT membership as a dichotomous variable and consider the structure of a BIT as a ‘black-box’. Therefore, one must also ask if variations in BIT design affect the amount MNCs are willing to invest. I plan to use pooled data for approximately 100 developing and developed nations from 1982 to 2004 to determine if BIT membership and variation leads to alterations in foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment (PI) flows. Specifically, I will be focusing on states that share investments with the United States and how mutual BIT memberships impact FDI and PI flows between the respective countries. Controlling for alternative explanations, I find evidence that BIT design dimensions have contrasting effects on the inward flows of various types of investments.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 39 words || 
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5. Schneiderman, David. "Investing in Democracy: Political Processes and Constitutional Presuppositions in International Investment Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311149_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The appearance of democracy in the contemporary world has been described by Wolin as occasional and fugitive. The privatisation of public authority, the reduction of citizenship to consumerism and democracy to shareholder equity are just some of the featu

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