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2005 - American Association For Public Opinion Association Words: 233 words || 
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1. Tisinger, Russ. and Lammie, Kelli. "Exemplification, War and Iraq: Examining the Effects of Exposure to Violence in Iraq on Attitudes on the Iraq War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association For Public Opinion Association, Fontainebleau Resort, Miami Beach, FL, <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p17200_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper/Poster Proposal
Abstract: Research has consistently shown that the news media’s tendency to use exemplars in relaying news stories has a demonstrable effect on audiences’ perceptions of incidence rates. Viewers ignore the more reliable base-rate information, which reports actual rates of occurrence, and concentrate on the more vivid, detailed and concrete pictures and information presented in exemplars. When considering occurrence rates, viewers’ judgments often reflect the information presented in exemplars rather than the base-rate information. Although exemplification has been shown to occur within experimental settings, it has not been as thoroughly explored using observational data. Furthermore, the implications of exemplification for viewers’ policy positions are largely unknown. This paper addresses these issues by examining the effects of the murder of four civilian contractors in Iraq. In April 2004, when United States civilian contractors were violently killed in Fallujah, Iraq, news media organizations reported graphic descriptions of the killings and published pictures of the event. In this paper, secondary data analysis is performed on a Pew Center for People and the Press survey in which respondents were asked if they saw the pictures, their perceptions about the war, and their support for various policy issues regarding the war. The study suggests that not only does the news media’s tendency to rely heavily on exemplars have a large effect on audiences’ perceptions of incidence rates but it also has implications for the way viewers’ express their policy positions.

2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 21 pages || Words: 4443 words || 
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2. Slusser, Suzanne. and Williams, Dana. "Americans and Iraq, Twelve Years Later: Comparing Support for the Bush Wars in Iraq" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p242649_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper considers the socio-demographic changes between the American public’s support for the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and the Iraq War in 2003. Various characteristics of respondents are expected to change on the basis of past research, including gender, age, race, income, education, and party affiliation. In nearly every instance, support decreased from 1991 to 2003. The only demographics that increased in their support for the use of military force were respondents who earned less than $10,000 per year, had less than a high school education, and were Republican affiliated. Women were less supportive of force than men, but both genders decreased their support between the two conflicts. African-Americans were less supportive than other minorities, who were in turn less supportive than Whites—still, all races decreased in their overall support in 2003. Less income was associated with less support. Those with lower educational attainment and higher attainment were the least supportive, with the greatest support in both wars coming from those with associate degrees. Support for force tended to decrease with age. Republicans were, predictably given the Republican presidents during both wars, more supportive than Democrats and Independents. Regression analysis showed there was a significant change in support for force between the two years even when holding constant all demographic variables. Thus, as the Iraq War was aimed at changing the governmental regime of Iraq and the Persian Gulf War only aimed at forcing Iraq from Kuwait, there is some credence to the argument that the nature of a war could have an effect on popular support.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 51 pages || Words: 12332 words || 
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3. Dyson, Stephen. "The U.S. / U.K. Alliance in Vietnam and Iraq: Why did Britain Stay out of Vietnam and go into Iraq?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p100338_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: What accounts for the different outcomes in British decisions in Vietnam (not commit forces), and Iraq (commit forces), despite the similarities in the situations? In both Vietnam and Iraq a U.S. President pressed a Labour Party Prime Minister to commit forces to a war that was unpopular in the U.K. Yet, while Harold Wilson resisted repeated attempts by Lyndon Johnson to secure a commitment of troops, Tony Blair went out of his way to support George W. Bush, despite the domestic political cost. In seeking to account for these differing outcomes, I consider four explanatory variables: structural realism, alliance dynamics, domestic politics, individual characteristics of the Prime Minister.Method: Structured, focused case comparison methodology is used to compare the two episodes in a systematic fashion. These cases are in many ways an ideal pairing given the similarities between the situations yet the divergent outcomes. In order to measure the individual characteristics of the Prime Minister, I employ automated content analysis techniques that process an individual?s verbal output to reveal personality traits.Results: Structural realism fails to account for the difference in outcome between the two cases, as both responses (commit troops, don?t commit troops) can be deduced from a structural perspective. Alliance dynamics explanations are also unsatisfactory. Harold Wilson?s behaviour is contrary to what we would expect from a junior partner, and, while Blair?s choice is more consistent with this approach, the evidence shows that Blair reached the decision on grounds other than a pure calculation of alliance maintenance necessity. Domestic politics, on the other hand, is part of the explanation for the difference in outcome. Wilson was in a much more precarious position than Blair, and hence had to give more attention to the left-wing, anti-war part of the Labour Party than did Blair. However, this is not the whole story, and I find that a convincing account of the different outcomes in these cases requires a consideration of the differences between the Prime Ministers. Blair was a much more ?black and white? thinker than Harold Wilson, making Blair more amenable to the ?good and evil? framing of the situation by the U.S. than the less Manichean Wilson. In addition, Blair had fashioned a closed advisory system which insulated him from the opposition of most of the foreign policy bureaucracy to the war, whereas the Wilson administration operated through more open procedures. Consequently, my conclusion is that a combination of domestic politics and leadership style best accounts for the difference in outcomes in British decision making on Vietnam and Iraq. The paper will be of interest to those working in foreign policy analysis and decision making, the U.S. - U.K. relationship, and alliance dynamics generally.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 47 pages || Words: 15208 words || 
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4. Cerami, Joseph. "The United States versus Iraq: the Challenges of Aligning and Integrating U.S. and the U.N. Counterproliferation Efforts Prior to the War In Iraq" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p179260_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines Clinton era executive leadership and counterproliferation policymaking. Leadership here refers to the role of senior officials, as public executives, in achieving policy goals for countering the spread of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq in the decade following the end of the Cold War. This Iraq case study focuses on the vision, mission, goals and objectives of the Clinton Administration?s Counterproliferation Initiative, as well as the policy?s implementation through the United Nation?s inspection agencies. The leadership roles of U.S. and U.N. public executives, as integrators of counterproliferation policies, are examined in terms of their skills in directing and utilizing the management capacity of various U.S. and international agencies to achieve the articulated policy results for countering WMD proliferation in Iraq. The executives? integrating and aligning roles extend within and across U.S. government agencies, as well as international organizations. In the Iraq case, this article examines the roles and functions of U.S. efforts, along with of the U.N.?s inspectors and its functional organization for nuclear regulation, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 39 words || 
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5. Mason, Victoria. "The 2003 Iraq War and the Rupturing of Social Bonds and Networks Amongst Iraqi Refugees: Ramifications for Refugee Survival and the Rebuilding of Iraq" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415482_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The 2003 Iraq war and resulting occupation, insurgency and humanitarian crisis has created some 4.7 million refugees, with two million of these refugees fleeing to neighbouring Arab states. The vast majority of these refugees have been deeply affected by

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