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2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Words: 195 words || 
1. Ennis, Crystal. "Global Islamic Governance: Islamic Unity and the Organization of the Islamic Conference" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Scholars of Global Governance frequently think of Global Governance, in its varying forms, as a secular project. Religious appeal, however, transcends borders. The Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), a unique Islamic international regime, exemplifies a narrative of how ideas and identity influence politics and policy in the Islamic world. Consisting of 57 member states, the OIC is self-characterized as pan-Islamic in nature and concerns itself with the transnational identity and cooperation of the global Muslim community. Indeed, Islamic unity is inscribed into the OIC’s charter and Islamic solidarity was the primary motivation behind its initiation. To date, the OIC has the second largest international membership after the United Nations. This paper explores the appeal of Islamic unity, discusses the context into which the OIC emerged, examines its historical significance and describes some of its ongoing challenges. Overall, this paper portrays this regime’s struggle against irrelevance often complicated by the complexity of its membership which is differentiated by religious sectarianism, diverse political and economic systems, motivations and ambitions. It argues that Islamic unity, as an idea driving a sense of transnational identity, is the adhesive which perpetuates the OIC’s existence and undergirds its, often dubious, relevance.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 31 pages || Words: 10291 words || 
2. Balci, Tamer. "From nationalization of Islam to Islamization of nation: Clash of Islam and secular nationalism in the Middle East" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper concentrates on the interaction of Islam and secular nationalism in the modern Middle East. Although the political power of Islam diminished with the rise of nationalism, it largely remained as a strong social force in the Middle East. While several Muslim political leaders spent efforts to create secular state structures, they still relied on the power of Islam for many practical reasons. From the 1920s on, the Middle East states aimed to take Islam under state control. Islam was taken under control so that secular nationalism could be initiated smoothly. However, based on the political conditions after WWII, the place of Islam in the Middle East was reevaluated by almost every Islamic state so that it could be used to promote the national interests. State control of Islam could be achieved only if Islam was nationalized through state propaganda and public education systems. Throughout the Middle East several Muslim states initiated projects to nationalize Islam. In this paper, I propose that the Muslim states’ desire to use Islam for their political interests paved the way for the rise of political Islam. What were the conditions that forced the political leaders to appeal the socio-political power of Islam? How the projects to nationalize Islam were carried out in the Middle East? Along with answering these questions, I will conclude my paper by answering two crucial questions: Why did the nationalization of Islam fail? Did the failure of these projects cause further Islamization of the Middle East.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 22 pages || Words: 4836 words || 
3. Causey, Charles. "Institutions or Islam? Explaining Disparities in Gender Attitudes between Islamic and non-Islamic Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many have debunked Islam's "incompatibility" with democracy yet
several researchers have found that Islamic countries lag behind
non-Islamic countries on measures of gender attitudes (e.g., Norris &
Inglehart 2004). Extant research suggests the historical impact of
Islam in explaining this gap, yet this fails to account for
significant differences between Islamic countries on these same
measures as well as the experiences of Muslims living in non-Islamic
societies and non-Muslims living in Islamic societies. Using
attitudinal data from the World Values Survey in conjunction with
country-level data, I explore institutional factors that predict
egalitarian gender attitudes. I investigate why increased economic
development negatively predicts egalitarian gender attitudes in
Islamic-majority countries. One potential explanation: shari'a law.
When the Qur'an is cited as the supreme law of the land, individual
attitudes toward women are less egalitarian; despite all Muslims
recognizing the Qur'an as divine law, the formal establishment of
religious law has deleterious effects for women.

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