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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 497 words || 
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1. Lee, Joshua., Wendelken, John., Bunge, Silvia. and Ghetti, Simona. "Developmental Change in Item-Space, Item-Time, and Item-Item Relational Binding in Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Structure" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p959294_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Episodic memory, the capacity to remember the past in detail, is supported by a number of processes mediated by a brain network including the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes, along with prefrontal and parietal cortices (Spaniol et al., 2009). Among the processes supporting episodic memory are fundamental operations that bind arbitrary spatial, temporal, and associative features to form an integrated event-representation (Eichenbaum & Cohen, 2004), operations the hippocampus is posited to support (Konkel et al., 2008). Although space, time, and associative relations are fundamental components to our episodic memories, little is known about their development. For example, it is unknown whether binding of these relations develops uniformly, suggesting homogeneity in the underlying processes, or differentially, suggesting heterogeneity in those processes. Moreover, to date few studies examined whether and how the hippocampus and its sub-divisions support binding development (Lee, Ekstrom, & Ghetti, 2014). The present research begins to address these fundamental gaps in our understanding of how operations and brain regions supporting spatial, temporal, and associative binding contribute to episodic memory development.

In a longitudinal sample of children aged 7-12 years (time 1: n=151; time 2: n=61, 120 projected; ∆time=1-2 years), and young adults (time 1: n=28; time 2: n=6, 22 projected; ∆time=1-2 years), we directly compared the development of item-space, item-time, and item-item binding using a within-subject experimental paradigm adapted from Konkel et al., (2008). In this design, participants are tested with three binding tasks that share a single encoding procedure (Figure 1a). On each trial, three items appear to three positions in order. Depending on task, participants are to learn the positions, order, or associations between items. After three encoding trials, memory for the relations is tested. Further, we examined whether sub-regional hippocampal volumes predict change in the capacity to bind item-space, item-time and item-item relations, given evidence that different sections along the anterior-posterior hippocampal axis supports binding of distinct details (Liang, Wagner, & Preston, 2012). Overall hippocampal and subfield volumes were assessed through segmentation of 0.35x0.35x0.70mm MPRAGE and 0.22x0.22x0.95mm T2-weighted scans, respectively.

In cross-sectional analysis of discrimination scores (i.e., hits minus false-alarms), repeated measures MANCOVA reveals a task X age-group interaction, F(10, 314)=1.91, p=.04, suggesting that item-space binding matures by middle-childhood while item-time binding by late-childhood (Figure 1b). In comparison, item-item binding exhibited a protracted trajectory. In preliminary longitudinal analysis of children, sub-regions along the long-axis of the hippocampus at time 1 differentially predicted change in the overall capacity to bind relations indicated by a composite score across relations (Figure 2a), such that smaller regions from hippocampal body are inversely related to improvements in binding. Further, analysis of the subfields suggests that this relation is predicated upon CA3/DG (Figure 2b).
Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that binding operations develop heterogeneously in childhood, and that longitudinal improvements during this period are associated with hippocampal structure. Further analyses will examine whether these longitudinal associations change as a function of type of binding operations, and whether change in hippocampal structure additionally support these improvements.

2013 - MWERA Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5443 words || 
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2. David, Shannon., McElhiney, Danielle. and Brooks, Gordon. "The Demonstration of Item Response Theory with Polytomous Items" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MWERA Annual Meeting, Hilton Orrington Hotel, Evanston, Illinois, Nov 06, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p677346_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: When developing a scale, it can be difficult to develop items that assess a latent trait. When a scale is created, the ultimate goal is to allow the scale to have both reliability and validity. There are multiple approaches to assess scale items including Item Response Theory (IRT) and Classical Test Theory (CTT). Classical Test Theory focus on the amount that a certain item influences an entire measure. It is more concerned with the observed score on a test or survey and how a group performs on the test (Lord, Novick, 1968). Item Reponses Theory (IRT) has a benefit over CTT in that it has the ability to assess accuracy with individual items being added to a scale (Drasgow & Hulin, 1990). Item Response Theory evaluates the individual items for accuracy instead of only looking at the entire test. The objective of this paper is to compare and contrast results from Classic Item Analysis and Item Response Theory. Thus the paper will be a how-to for polytomous items using Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory.

2018 - ACJS 55th Annual Meeting Words: 206 words || 
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3. Ray, James., Childs, Kristina. and Frick, Paul. "Examining the Item Level Functioning of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) using Item Response Theory Analysis" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ACJS 55th Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Feb 13, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1346688_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Risk assessment tools are used to classify juvenile offenders based on the likelihood for future offending and match youth with an appropriate level of supervision. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2006) is one of the most widely used tools. Several studies have evaluated the predictive validity of the SAVRY; while only a few studies have examined the construct validity. The few factor-analytic studies assessing the SAVRY have supported the notion of multiple domains of risk (e.g., violence/dysregulation and social support; Sijtsema, Kretschmer, & Van Os, 2015). However, examinations of how well each of the SAVRY items assess a youth’s level of risk are non-existent. This study utilizes item response theory analysis (IRT) to examine the performance of each SAVRY item across different levels risk. That is, are SAVRY items performing the same across different levels of risk? The current study uses the IRT framework to address this question among a sample of adjudicated youth in three jurisdictions in the southeast. The implications of the results will be discussed in terms of the validity of the SAVRY items, the importance of specific types or domains, and the practical benefits and limitations of the instrument.

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