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2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 169 words || 
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1. Shen, Anqi. "Gender and Judging in the Context of China: An Empirical Study on Women Judges Who Judge Women Offenders" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1275089_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Personal values serve as a tacit influence on decision-making. Personal values are formed by individuals’ life experiences, including the gendered experience. Based on a recent empirical study, this paper examines how women judges deal with women offenders in the context of China. Specifically, it investigates women judges’ attitudes towards female criminality, and their views on sentencing women offenders. Through presenting the female judges’ own narratives and biographies, it aims to gain insights into women’s behaviour in sentencing decision-making, and explore how gender plays a role in the judicial process, so as to make a case for women’s contributions to law and judicial production. To a lesser extent, it discusses the gender norm that is expected of women in the mainstream Chinese society. Scholarly research on Chinese women judges is sparse. This paper, as part of a larger project, also aims to fill in some of the gaps in the existing literature on women in the judiciary, gender and judging, and women’s social position in the post-reform era in China.

2011 - The Law and Society Association Words: 417 words || 
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2. Nowak, Tobias. and Hertogh, Marc. "National Judges as European Union Judges: Knowledge, Experiences, and Attitudes of Lower Court Judges in Germany and the Netherlands" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Westin St. Francis Hotel, San Francisco, CA, May 30, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p495727_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper will present the proceedings and the main findings of the research project “National Judges and European Law” in short. This research identifies how EU law is applied by national courts in the EU member states by asking national judges about their views with regard to the application of EU law.

European Union (EU) law has an increasing influence on all fields of national law. Several principles have been developed at the European level to ensure that EU law is applied by national judges, such as the principles of supremacy and direct effect, as well as the principle that national laws should be interpreted in conformity with European rules and the principle that EU law must in some cases be applied ex officio. EU law thus has high expectations which the national courts of the member states must meet in order to provide the level of judicial protection foreseen by the former. However, the theoretical EU legal framework may not necessarily coincide with the way in which it is applied in national courts in practice and with the perception of the European legal order by national judges.

The research project focuses on judges of private law courts of lower instance in the Netherlands and the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. A comparison between Dutch and German judges makes it possible to consider the extent to which experiences with European law are stipulated by the specific characteristics of a national legal system. The project has been set up with the aim to study the experiences of national judges with EU law, the way in which national judges are informed about developments in EU law and the way in which they look upon the influence of EU law in a traditionally national area of law, private law, and to contrast the results with the EU law expectations. Three factors are identified which arguably influence the above described function of national judges: experiences, knowledge and attitudes. We ask how the application of EU law by national judges is influenced by (a) (negative or positive) experiences with applying EU law within national legal systems (b) problems concerning knowledge of (researching) EU law and/or (c) underlying attitudes of national judges towards their role as decentralised EU courts.

This project makes an important contribution to the field of legal consciousness studies. Unlike previous studies, this project (a) focuses on the legal consciousness of national judges and (b) the idea of legal consciousness is applied to the context of supranational (EU) law.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 9356 words || 
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3. Kearney, Richard. and Paynter, Sharon. "'Judge Not, That Ye Be Not Judged': Evaluating the Performance of Judges" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p209619_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Judicial Performance Evaluation (JPE) is a systematic, objective process of assessing the performance of judges with two overriding institutional objectives: judicial self improvement and constituent education. First adopted by Alaska in 1975, JPE programs are presently mandated in 19 states and under consideration in several others. While JPE adoption and implementation patterns differ, all states have been attentive to balancing the critically important values of judicial independence and accountability.

Scholars and practitioners in human resource management are in general agreement that effective performance appraisal systems must meet the following criteria: clear objectives; reliability and validity of the appraisal methods; separation of personal judgments and bias from job-based performance assessments; employee acceptance of the evaluation system; leadership’s commitment to the appraisal process.

Based on data gathered from state reports, surveys, case histories, and the very few empirical analyses of judicial performance appraisal extant, this paper juxtaposes JPE and the criteria for effective appraisal systems. This research is aimed at determining whether JPE is an effective performance appraisal tool. Through assessing the applicability of 360-degree performance evaluation in a unique setting, findings contribute to the research on human resource management as well as state judicial policy and reform.

2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 209 words || 
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4. Marder, Nancy. "Judging Judge Judy and Other Television Judges" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-08-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p406429_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Judge Judy is a long-running daytime television program that reaches millions of viewers and enjoys top ratings. The program teaches several harmful lessons about judges and courts. One lesson is that a judge is someone who is quick to form a judgment and who belittles those who appear before her. Another is the confusion this program creates between entertainment and judging, leaving some viewers convinced they are watching the judicial system at work. Although Judge Judy is everything a judge should not be she manages to teach the women who appear before her as litigants that they need to take charge of their lives. This paper will explore the harms Judge Judy inflicts on the role of the judge, the confusion she creates for those who view her as a judge rather than an entertainer, and surprisingly, the ways in which Judge Judy is a feminist. This paper will also place Judge Judy in the broader context of other television shows in the U.S. and examine the lessons these shows teach about judges, courts, and justice, and how they contribute to or detract from the national conversation about race, gender and sexual orientation and its effects on the proper role of the judge.

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