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2008 - The Mathematical Association of America MathFest Words: 255 words || 
1. Mingus, Tabitha. and Grassl, Richard. "Validating the Warrant P(k)-->P(k+1): Does Any Means Justify the Ends?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Mathematical Association of America MathFest, TBA, Madison, Wisconsin, Jul 28, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: For practicing and prospective secondary mathematics teachers, the role of mathematical reasoning and proof in their mathematical training is crucial for a number of reasons: (1) formal mathematical proof serves as a tool for teachers to develop a profound understanding of mathematics and as a means for communicating their understanding; (2) reasoning and proof are featured prominently in the secondary school curricula as envisioned in the NCTM Principles; and, (3) reasoning and proof can form the basis for the development and assessment of student learning and discourse. Following the scheme suggested by the Seldens (2003), we undertook a cross-sectional study of pre- and in-service secondary mathematics teachers’ abilities to validate purported proofs by mathematical induction with an eye toward determining what facets they attended to when reading such an argument. Of the 82 validation attempts only 9 correctly identified that the attempt was flawed.

The reviews of our article submission were mixed, including one reviewer who insisted that the proposition P(k+1) can be established by any means. This sparked an in-depth analysis of the mathematical induction argumentation style using Toulmin’s (1958) argumentation scheme. The concept of a warrant from Toulmin’s scheme is the logical connection between what is given in a proof and what is concluded. In this talk we will discuss the flawed arguments presented to the participants, how Toulmin’s scheme can be utilized to analyze students’ attempts at proof by mathematical induction, and how the scheme can be used as a pedagogical tool in the undergraduate mathematics classroom.

2015 - The Native American and Indigenous Studies Association Words: 255 words || 
2. Chang, David. "Diasporic Lives and Deaths: Kānaka and American Indians Remember the Deaths of Kānaka in California" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Native American and Indigenous Studies Association, Hyatt Regency on Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C., <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The varying commemorations of the lives and deaths of diasporic Hawaiians in nineteenth-century California reveal the complexities of their lives and identities: both as Kānaka Maoli with deep ties to the Hawaiian nation and as men whose lives had entwined deeply with California Indian communities. By the 1840s, one-third of the Native men of the archipelago were laboring abroad, and the Gold Rush brought hundreds more to California. Many (probably most) of them lived with and among Native Americans. Many diasporic Kānaka never returned home: they died far from their homeland. From the 1850s until the end of the century, commemorative articles in Hawaiian-language newspapers about Kānaka Hawaiʻi who died in diaspora gave Kānaka a means to imagine the enduring bonds linking Kanaka to each other and to their home places—what Kānaka call their ʻone hanau, the sands of their birth. Articles in Hawaiian-language newspapers and stories of remembrance about Kānaka Hawaiʻi who died in diaspora helped make Hawaiian families and communities aware of the fate of the migrants far away and helped to keep the migrants knit into the Hawaiian national community. At the same time, the way these people were commemorated in graveyards and oral narratives by their American Indian family members and descendants makes clear their strong connection to the American Indian communities among whom they lived. Read together, both Hawaiian and Native Californian commemorations played a role in reimagining communities that could be physically far-flung, socially diverse, and tied to Hawaiian and Native Californian communities.

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Zhang, Ruonan. "International K-Pop Fans’ Usage of Facebook Groups for Organizational Identification With K-Pop Fan Community" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study is designed to investigate how international fans of Korean popular (K-pop) culture construct organizational identification with K-pop fan community through interactions on Facebook fan group pages. Drawn on organizational identification scholarship and literature on the international influence of K-pop culture, this study aims to find out (1) the types of interactions conducted by international K-pop fans on Facebook fan group pages, (2) how those interactions help them build organizational identification with K-pop fan community, (3) how their organizational identification contributes to their sense of belongingness, attachment, and pleasure of being K-pop fans, and (4) the moderator of the relationship between Facebook interactions and organizational identification with K-pop fan community. A mixed-methods approach is adopted to answer the proposed research questions. A qualitative content analysis is used to determine the typology of interactions conducted on international K-pop fan groups on Facebook. A quantitative survey method is used to investigate the international K-pop fans’ organizational identification with the Facebook fan groups, including its predictors, moderators, and effects.

2007 - Mathematical Association of America Words: 77 words || 
4. Molina, Robert., McNally, Myles. and Smith, Ken. "Characterization of Randomly $P_k$ -Decomposable Graphs, $2le k le11$ " Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mathematical Association of America, The Fairmont Hotel, San Jose, CA, Aug 03, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: A graph G is H-decomposable if it can be expressed as an edge disjoint union of H-subgraphs. We say that G is randomly H-decomposable if every collection of edge disjoint H-subgraphs of G can be extended to an H-decomposition of G. In this paper we characteriz randomly $P_k$ -decomposable graphs for $2\le k \le11$ . We also prove several structural results related to these graphs. Finally, suggestions for further research in this area are given.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 497 words || 
5. Valentino, Rachel. "Will Public Pre-K Really Close Achievement Gaps? Gaps in Access to Quality Pre-K between Students and Across States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-27 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: By the time children enter kindergarten, there are already large gaps in achievement between black/Hispanic and white students, poor and non-poor students, and dual language learners (DLLs) and non-DLLs (Reardon & Robinson, 2008; NCES, 2011). Public pre-K is often touted as a means to close gaps, with the idea that enriching disadvantaged children’s early learning will level the playing field between them and their more advantaged peers. However, this end may not be realized if there are large gaps in the quality of pre-K experienced between groups. This paper seeks to understand overall quality gap magnitudes, variation in gaps across states, and what classroom- and state-level factors explain the size of quality gaps.

This paper uses data from the NCEDL Multi-State Pre-Kindergarten Study and the State-Wide Early Education Programs Study, which measured classroom quality in state-funded pre-K in 11 states in 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, respectively. At the time of data collection 80% of children in the U.S. participating in state-funded pre-K were enrolled in one of these 11 states. The study consists of a stratified random sample of 721 classrooms containing approximately 12,000 students, and collected data on classroom quality using structural and procedural measures. The current study uses OLS regression with appropriate survey weighting and jackknife standard errors to unsure unbiased parameter estimation.

First, I find that black-white, Hispanic-white, poor-non-poor, and DLL-non-DLL quality gaps in standard deviation units are large, ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 SD, with the largest gaps on measures of emotional and instructional climate (see Table 1 for an abbreviated list of raw gaps).

Second, I examine what factors explain the size of gaps on procedural measures of quality, considering three groups of variables: 1) structural characteristics such as teacher education to consider, for instance, whether variation across classrooms and groups in teacher training explains the size of gaps; 2) the initial competency of students upon entry to the program to examine whether when initial skills of the students are low, teachers target teaching to students’ ability; and 3.) classroom composition to consider, for example, whether the proportion of low SES kids in the classroom explains the size of racial quality gaps. State fixed effects are included in these models. I find that structural characteristics generally explain little to none of the size of quality gaps, while initial student ability and classroom composition each explain about 50-65% of gap magnitudes. Gaps of about 0.2 to 0.3 SD remain on most quality measures net of these factors.

Third, I consider whether there is between-state variation in the size of quality gaps, and find sizable differences across states (See figure 1 for gaps on the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale).

Additionally, in the presentation I will report on state-level factors, such as segregation and the rates at which states expanded their pre-K programs, that account for between-state differences in the size of quality gaps. This question is particularly important, as idiosyncratic state policies may provide insight into broader policy reform to equalize quality access across groups.

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