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2017 - 4S Annual Meeting Words: 218 words || 
1. Knopes, Julia. "Knowing, Not Knowing, and Knowing In-Between: Responding to Epistemological Rifts at an American Medical School" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston MA, Aug 30, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As landmark research in the social sciences has revealed, medical students must frequently contend with uncertainty as they develop new skills and knowledge as future physicians. Drawing on 12 months of ethnographic research in a Midwestern US allopathic medical school, this paper aims to nuance the concept of “uncertainty.” It demonstrates that the boundary between ‘knowing’ and ‘not knowing’ is fluid when medical students learn to integrate multiple forms of knowledge to understand complex biomedical concepts. Throughout the study reported on here, when medical students lacked one type of information about a topic, they frequently drew upon other forms of knowledge to “fill in the gap,” thereby reconciling what they felt certain of with their initial uncertainty. This paper will present key examples from anthropological observations and interviews to illustrate the impact of students’ micro-level encounters with uncertainty on the broader epistemology of clinical learning and practice. It will suggest that physicians-in-training do not simply acclimate to ‘not knowing,’ but that early encounters with uncertainty may prompt medical students to creatively synthesize information and develop active responses to uncertain situations. The paper will engage with science and technology studies, and the theme of Sensibilities, by highlighting how biomedical practitioners learn to effectively “grasp” new scientific knowledge and to “respond” when they seem to lack key skills or information.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Words: 491 words || 
2. Cain, Richard. "Can We Know that We Know? An Examination of the Argument for the Recovery of Epistemological Realism in Contemporary Rhetorical Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: In the history of rhetorical theory, epistemological realism and epistemological skepticism can both boast pedigrees extending back to the foundations of rhetoric. The central issue here is what constitutes human knowing? Is knowing the assimilation of other to self as modernity asserts or of self to other as traditional epistemological realism has asserted? This paper will show how traditional epistemological realism can be understood in a way that remains persuasive to modern and post-modern sensibility. Specifically, I will suggest how the knowing that underlies all communicative acts can be understood as involving a complex of cognitive activities that form an inseparable unity in practice that necessarily gives metaphysical priority to what is cognized. The difficulty the cognitive agent has in even distinguishing the act of a particular external sense (for example, the eye seeing an apple on the table) from the instinctive judgments, memories, and thoughts that inevitably accompany that act of cognition, I will suggest is further evidence for the plausibility of the epistemological realist stance. Self-knowledge seems much more difficult to achieve that knowledge of extramental objects. In other words, the cognitive agent knows directly the object of cognition and only indirectly his or her own act of knowing. Thus it is the other and not the self that stands first in the act of knowing because the knowing self comes to know itself in its act of knowing only in and through first knowing the other.
I will also show the importance of the internal senses—particularly what epistemological realists called the vis cogitativa—the cogitative sense—in the cognitive act of knowing. I will argue that all knowledge originates in the external senses and is ordered by the internal senses into phantasms, abstracted by the agent intellect which uses phantasms as a kind of instrument in order to determine the possible intellect in a way that yields a concept which can then be judged by reflecting back on the phantasms. Even if the senses act under the direction of the intellect, the intellect in turn needs a phantasm, both to know and to recall what it already knows. Thus, everything ultimately depends on the external senses. Here I will also argue for the essential immateriality of cognitive acts by distinguishing between two kinds of activity. One kind of change is entirely physical in that the thing immuted receives the form of the thing immuting in a way that destroys what was there prior to the immutation (as when something cold ceases to be cold when it is heated). The other kind is only partially physical in that it involves a physical organ, which is able to undergo change but not the way that something cold becomes hot (as when the eye senses the redness in an apple without itself becoming red). In this way, I hope to show how the external senses are naturally governed by what is sensed, but in a way that does not destroy the sense.

2011 - ASC Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 180 words || 
3. Rebovich, Donald. and Choo, Kyungseok. "Identity Crimes and Identity Criminals: What We Know and What We Don’t Know" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 15, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This presentation describes results of a national study of identity crime characteristics derived from a comparison of study results of an analysis of federal criminal cases ranging from the year 2000 through 2007 with an examination of more recent federal cases from 2008 through 2010. This study of closed cases examines methods of identity theft used through organized group activities, specifically a sequence of multiple methods and human networks among offenders. It distinguishes the methods between single activity and organized group activities as well as their differences. The comparative analysis then discusses individual roles in organized group activities and patterns of the identity crime methods by different levels of individual roles. Also discussed, are changes of the methods in terms of technology utilization from 2000 through 2010.

Features of the cases are explored over time with regard to The presentation Keywords: Edit Keywords 1. White collar crime

Authors: Edit Author Donald Rebovich,, Kyung-seok Choo,

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