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2009 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 484 words || 
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1. Danico, Mary. "Riding the Hallyu (Korean Wave): Korean Americans and the Global Impact of Korean Pop Culture" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Renaissance Hotel, Washington D.C., <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p317814_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: The Korean Wave, otherwise known as Hallyu, has made South Korean dramas, music, and talents an international sensation. The increased popularity of Hallyuwood, combined with Korea’s imposed global economic standing, has attracted Korean Americans (gyopos) to Korea; and at the same time, stimulated Korean businesses and communities throughout Asia and in the US, especially Asian American communities. My paper challenges the dominance of U.S. popular culture and examines the ways in which the South Korean entertainment industry is changing racialized perceptions of Korea and Korean bodies as well as reshaping Korean Americans and their cultural connections to “homeland.”

Korea has made an impact on the global entertainment industry, shaped both by Korean political initiatives and Korea’s position in the shifting global economy. Korean movies, television shows, and singing sensations have gained international popularity throughout Asia and in Asian American communities where they have a mass following of adoring fans. These movies and television dramas are translated into multiple languages and have created international celebrities of Korean and Korean American talents based in Korea.

South Korea’s entertainment industry has experienced major transformations since the 80s when Korea relaxed its film censorship law, followed by the 1990s when globalization became a major state policy and ideology of the Kim Young Sam government (1993-1998). Korea’s wave not only included the entertainment industry, but its economies emerged as one of the fastest growing in Asia. Korea’s economic resurrection since the Korean War has been called the “Miracle on the Han River.”

Globally, Korea’s growing economic (Seoul, 3rd most expensive city to live in the world) and improved political standing, as well as its cultural phenomena has attracted the migration of 1.5 and second generation Korean Americans, who are the largest group of “foreigners” in South Korea. The Korean government made migration easier for the immigration of overseas Koreans into South Korea by providing them with legal status and providing them with comprehensive package of economic privileges from financial transactions to pensions. The new law targeted Korean Americans because of the demand for English speaking professionals who could potentially contribute to the country’s repositioning in the international economy.

In this paper, I argue that the increased cultural capital of Korea has resulted in a surge of
Korean Americans in the entertainment industry, as well as those who participate in the global economy in Korea. Contrary to their racial marginalization in the US in the entertainment industry and the market economy, Korean Americans have found South Korea to be a welcoming site to actualize their Korean Americanness; particularly for 1.5 and 2nd generations who are bicultural and bilingual. Korean Americans, therefore, are creating an alternative Korean American space forming Korean diasporic communities in South Korea. They are also challenging Korea’s homogenized attitudes and has forced them to rethink attitudes about bi-racial/mixed race Korean Americans as stars to emulate and Korean Americans as an ideal global worker.

2013 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 217 words || 
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2. Nopper, Tamara. "Revisiting “Black-Korean Conflict” and the “Myth of Special Assistance”: Korean Banks, U.S. Government Agencies, and the Capitalization of Korean Immigrant Small Business in the U.S." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Washington, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p656253_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: A major source of contention fueling “Black-Korean conflict” is the claim put forth by many African Americans that Korean immigrants receive special support from banks and the American government to open their firms. In response, scholars argue that this claim is a “myth” and that Koreans are disadvantaged when it comes to accessing resources from banks and government institutions and must rely on co-ethnic resources. Yet the preoccupation with co-ethnic support has resulted in minimal attention being given to the industries of Korean commercial banking and U.S. government small business development, both of which have grown since the first wave of post-1965 Korean immigrant entrepreneurship. Drawing from interviews with Korean bankers and representatives of resource partners of the Small Business Administration and the Minority Business Development Agency, this presentation theorizes how Korean banks and government agencies promote Korean immigrant small business. Emphasizing the opportunities that Korean banks provide to clients, Korean-focused programs offered by government resource partners, and collaborations between banks and government agencies, this presentation also explores how the typification of Korean immigrants as simultaneously insulated, underserved, and deserving inform efforts to connect with Korean communities. To this end, I consider how government agencies work to promote both intra-ethnic and interracial networking among Koreans as well as diversify Korean banks’ clientele.

2016 - AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto Words: 186 words || 
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3. Saito, Masami. "Zaitokukai and North Korean Abductions: The Attack against Kyoto Korean School" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1103489_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: For many participants in extreme right movements, such as Zaitokukai, the revelation in 2002 that North Korea had abducted numerous Japanese citizens from Japanese shores was a key motivating factor in joining the movement. This study looks at demonstrations by Zaitokukai and others, who attacked Kyoto Korean School in 2009 and 2010, and the court case that followed their arrest, based on my extensive fieldwork and in-depth interviews with the activists who participated in them.  I will focus on how they interpreted the North Korean abduction issue and used it in both their demonstrations and the court case to justify their actions. I will also address their seemingly irrelevant claim that Chongryon was involved in the abductions. I will show why they reached such an understanding of the North Korean abductions, and also of the postwar history of North Korea-Japan relations. My research reveals that the activists frequently participated in gatherings and activities on the theme of North Korean abductions, hosted by mainstream conservative organizations. These organizations have close connections to conservative Diet representatives. Based on such experiences, extreme right activists such as members of Zaitokukai are confident that mainstream Japanese society shares the idea that Chongryon and Korean schools were relevant forces in the abductions. I argue that Zaitokukai’s understanding of the North Korean abduction issue is a significant factor that connects them to mainstream conservative politicians and organizations, and they strategically use the issue to justify their aggressive actions and hate speech.

2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 234 words || 
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4. Cho, Mun Young. "The Alternative “Korean Wave”: Globalizing South Korean Grassroots Activism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1191222_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: On the occasion of the fourth anniversary of the South Korean committee for overseas community organization (KOCO) in July 2016, a female founder spoke to the audience: “the world is much the same as Bongcheon-dong.” In her statement, Bongcheon-dong was neither an administrative place-name in Seoul, South Korea, nor an erstwhile site for anti-eviction struggles that she had long been engaged since the 1990s. Instead, the location emerged as a critical metaphor for producing a creative dialogue between veteran grassroots activism and the growing regime of international development NGOs. In this paper, I examine how historic sites of South Korean grassroots activism function as a “core location” (Young-Seo Baik, 2013) for counter-development as veteran activists attempt to revitalize its legacy in the realm of migration and international development. Using KOCO’s activities as an ethnographic example, I analyze the globalization of South Korean community activism, in which tenacious struggles for grassroots democracy, not the nation’s economic miracle, usher migrant workers from Asian countries as well as young agents in development NGOs into the “Korean Wave” in some new ways. Through a pilgrimage to historic sites of activism, memorial events for the late activists, and international exchange among Asian activists, the alternative Korean Wave locates Korea as a method through which a series of practices based on horizontal solidarity among the globally marginalized confound the labor-oriented order of migration and the techno-politics of global anti-poverty interventions.

2017 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 246 words || 
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5. Cho, Eun Ah. "Mirrored Images: Gendered Subjectivity of North Korean Migrants in South Korean Television" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel, Toronto, Canada, Mar 16, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1188883_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper analyzes four television programs which greatly contribute to establishing the image of North Korean migrants in contemporary South Korean society. In these programs, the North Korean migrants not only repeat the gender roles they have embodied within North Korean society, but their gendered images are appropriated to fortify the gender-hierarchical frame of South Korean society. The way in which the North Korean female and male migrants are portrayed is very distinctive. While the North Korean women, or Northern beauties, play the role of women who are robust but obedient to South Korean men, the North Korean men are described as blunt and unsophisticated in contrast with the civilized South Korean men. The North Korean males’ tanned skin and strong Northern accents satisfy South Korean males who showcase their urbanized appearance with the standardized intonation. Once the North Korean men migrate to South Korean society, the competition between these enemies of North and South Korean men is no longer sustained. The existence of North Korean male migrants is used to strengthen the South Korean males’ masculinity, which identifies with the authority of its nation-state. On the other hand, there is no proper space for South Korean women in this highly gendered frame. North Korean men are almost invisible, but South Korean women are absent in this sphere. By examining distinguished gender groups, this paper shows how North Korean and South Korean females are marginalized in contemporary South Korean society where misogynistic discourse has become intensified.

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