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2009 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 246 words || 
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1. Sithole, Kundai. "Legitimacy and ‘value-laden state consent’: the Council of Europe." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel Intercontinental, New Orleans, LA, Jan 07, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p284637_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paucity of literature on the political authority and indeed legitimacy of the Council of Europe obfuscates its significance, not only as a regional organisation, but most importantly as the democratic and human rights watchdog for Europe. From its inception in 1949, the existing literature offers an account of an organisation on the quest for political legitimacy. The following reasons have been advanced in an attempt to explicate this quest: shortcomings within its institutional design; its ‘low-impact’ policy output; external competition arising from the European Union’s increasing interest in the ‘softer’ subjects of European integration. From the foregoing assertion, arises the following question: in considering the Council of Europe an international organisation with a democratic mandate in a democratic region, to what extent is the present model of international legitimacy and international organisations considered applicable?

In seeking to contribute to the burgeoning literature on the legitimacy of international organisations, this paper offers an account of how the Council of Europe’s political legitimacy as a regional organisation within an established democratic region is to be understood. To commence, an evaluation of the concept of legitimacy in international relations. The ensuing conceptualisation of ‘Europe as a region’ will offer an overview of the regional constitutive rules upon which the Council of Europe’s normative justifiability is based. The organisation’s institutional structure will then be analysed, concluding with an assessment of the Council of Europe’s performance criteria, as to its role as the democratic and human rights watchdog for Europe.

2013 - SASE Annual Conference Words: 497 words || 
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2. palumbo, antonella. "Theory-laden Empirical Research and the Challenge of the Economic Role of the State" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, Jun 27, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p655006_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Mainstream economic theory, with its emphasis of the self-regulating properties of markets, has played a role in shaping European economic policies and the design of European economic institutions (Fitoussi, 2000, 2002). This has put constraints on the ability of the States to pursue industrial policies, to implement public investment programs and even to adopt counter-cyclical stimulus packages in severe recession times. While part of the economists recognize now that this aversion to an active role of the State has been misplaced and has induced serious underestimation of the contractive effects of austerity (Blanchard and Leigh, 2013), the vast majority of the profession shares however the idea, proper to mainstream theory, that in the long-period demand policies inevitably produce inflation, while having irrelevant effects on real long-term growth. The latter would be exclusively determined by supply factors: the accumulation of resources and the growth of productivity in time.
This theoretical belief is apparently confirmed by empirical research, which shows over medium-long periods a tendency of actual output to gravitate towards potential output, the latter being defined on the basis of supply factors.
On closer look, however, it may be shown how deeply empirical research is influenced and biased by theory. Empirical estimates of potential output have generally little content apart from the representation of the theoretical belief that potential output must be a strong attractor of actual output, so that it is assumed (but not proved) to be some sort of moving average of actual output. The theoretical belief that there is a well-defined relationship between output gaps and changes in inflation, and the difficulty to detect any such systematic relationship in actual data, determines variability and uncertainty of the estimates and their poor performance as predictors of inflation.
Thus, while the notion of potential output is extremely relevant for binding policies, its uncertain and theory-laden empirical quantification implies that actual policies are guided more by a theoretical presumption than by the analysis of actual data.

A completely different definition of the determinants of potential output is possible in the demand-led growth approach, which describes the economy, both in the short and the long run, as demand-constrained and devoid of self-regulating mechanisms. Potential output is here seen as endogenously determined by realized growth, and the economy’s growth trajectory is path-dependent. This has relevant policy implications.
In the first place, demand policies may prove useful tools not only for short-run stabilization but also for growth. In the second place, the plurality of potential output paths opens up room for a whole array of industrial policies aimed at guiding the economy along the socially desirable one. In the third place, the frequent contention that political choices of societies are necessarily constrained by some economic indisputable laws, so often evoked in the European debate of recent months, proves at least questionable. The retreat of the State, especially in Europe, from its historical role of promoting growth and ensuring social welfare appears not as a matter of economic constraints but of political choice.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Words: 206 words || 
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3. Scepanski, Philip. "“Let's Hope Osama bin Laden Doesn't Learn Showtunes”: Unintentional Irony and the Internet as Cultural Archive" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p984023_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Family Guy joked about bin Laden attacking the US in 2000. Sex and the City made JFK Jr. a character just a week before his plane went down. Reruns and DVDs excised these bits, silencing useful commentary about governmental responsibility regarding 9/11 (Stewie knew; why not Bush?) or removing associations between the post-mortem Kennedy and overly feminized media. Yet I can access records of these ironies and can usually see original clips.

Despite commercial television's attempt to edit its own history, amateur internet archives reveal dramatic irony by showing how television sometimes unintentionally predicts traumatic moments. This creates dramatic intermedial irony reflecting its characters', producers', and audiences' ignorance of momentous future events. In this paper, I argue that internet archives replace television's own commercial historiography to reveal ironic histories. This reveals political and social contradictions and suggests more nuanced temporalities than is often ascribed television and the internet.

Philip Scepanski is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Film, though he also works in the interdisciplinary Media Studies and American Studies programs, at Vassar College where he teaches courses on crisis and catastrophe, comedy and humor, and American broadcast history. His primary research focuses on the ways in which television comedy manages and negotiates moments of American collective trauma.

2013 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 9603 words || 
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4. Sessa, Whitney., North, Michael. and Lang, Katie. "Framing of Osama bin Laden's Death: A Global Perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Hotel, Washington DC, Aug 08, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p670303_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Media framing of Osama bin Laden’s death was examined in four international, 24-hour news networks: CNN.com, BBC World News, Al Jazeera English and Al Arabiya English. This study found no association between news network and frames used, suggesting that neither geographical location nor ethnocentrism influenced media frames. In contrast to previous media analyses conducted of bin Laden, this study found the dominant frames of bin Laden to be “neutral figure” or “terrorist leader.”

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 394 words || 
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5. Wolfgram, William. "The Ballad of Pancho and bin Laden: Militarized Manhunts and the Diffusion of Border Politics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251218_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In the weeks, months and years following the events of September 11th, 2001, scholars, citizens and policy-makers have widely adopted the view that these events were a watershed moment, delimiting a fundamental change in the international security environment, partially focused on the body of Osama bin Laden. In such a way, the US was able to support the idea of state sovereignty while mobilizing troops on Afghan soil. At the same time, and in response to this “new” security environment, critical scholars have been preoccupied with questions of biopolitics and, especially, of the exception in order to explain the practices of statecraft in a time of crisis. While many critical scholars agree on the importance of sovereign exceptionality, few agree on its range, scope, or logical consequences. The one thing that most agree on is the immediacy of the crisis and of the event: the exception is often considered ahistorically in the context of the current crisis, in spaces like airport lobbies, Guantanamo Bay, and the bodies of detained “persons of interest.” The exception may or may not be exceptional, but it is widely considered to be an emergent property of the current state of affairs. We contend that one needs to approach the current discussion on biopolitics and the exception in a historical perspective. Although the particular circumstances were novel, we suggest that the events of September 11th, and the specific responses of the United States, are by no means new. On March 9, 1916, Pancho Villa crossed the US-Mexican border and raided Columbus, New Mexico, setting off a manhunt that took General JG Pershing deep into Mexican territory. We seek to show through a genealogy of Pershing’s “Punitive Expedition” how the practice of militarized manhunts requires a delicate blending of both old and new practices of statecraft. Specifically, the practices of modern statecraft require a simultaneous insistence upon and disdain for territorial sovereignty, the simultaneous instantiation of geopolitics and biopower, and the simultaneous reification and transgression of borders. In short, this paper considers the hunt for Pancho Villa as an analogue for the current war on terror, in order to reveal how current security practices are neither “old” nor “new” but instead a novel manifestation of the practices of statecraft that have been historically most apparent at the border. Exceptionality, therefore, may best be understood as the worldwide diffusion of border politics.

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