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2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 213 words || 
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1. George, Erika. "The Place of the Private Transnational Actor in International Law: From Law Breakers to Law Makers? Multinationals and Human Rights, Understanding Corporate Self-Regulation as Soft Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178122_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Globalization, presents a challenge to the conceptual foundation of international law as premised on state action and state responsibility. Powerful non-state actors operate pose significant theoretical and practical difficulties for international law. This paper offers an account of evolving trends in efforts to ensure compliance of multinationals with international human rights norms. Specifically, the paper advances a more expansive vision of the subjects and sources of international law in an effort to conceptualize the conduct of private transnational commercial actors as law making by tracking the trajectory of recent corporate social responsibility initiatives such as the U.N. Global Compact and the U.N. Norms on Business and Human Rights. The paper urges international lawyers to remain open to the possibility that private non-state actors may “make” law where law making is understood to be a process of communication creating authoritative norms for a given community of actors. Finally, the paper posits that the perceived governance gaps and democratic deficits which accompany certain aspects of globalization may be overcome by a critical appreciation for the ways in which non-state actors are engaged in functional law making through the recent proliferation of pledges by private corporate actors to embrace international development priorities and human rights principles when pushed by segments of civil society.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 31 pages || Words: 11282 words || 
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2. Larson, Erik. "When Law is Not Hegemonic: The Resonance of Law and the Institutionalization of Law and Politics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-08 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p308648_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite fundamentally different starting points both legal consciousness and classical sociology of law argue law has constitutive powers. Approaching questions about law and the constitution of political communities from a legal consciousness perspective, however, draws attention to the participation and practice of individuals that produces the legal order. Instead of thinking merely of the rule of law (as a top-down process), legal consciousness asks analysts to think of the resonance of law, of how people understand and are oriented toward the applicability and reach of law. I examine how extra-legal actions with stated goals of achieving justice influence orientations toward law. I study Fiji’s recent proposal to establish a reconciliation commission and its December 2006 military coup, both of which were framed as responses to its 2000 coup and both of which by-pass the formal court system, drawing on interviews I conducted with citizens (N=66, selected through a national multi-stage cluster sample). Rather than legal hegemony, the institutionalization of law and politics in Fiji results in a low resonance of law in relation to large-scale political issues. While citizens look to law to serve as a neutral arbiter, this resonance does not extend to assessing coups as events or political elites’ actions. Political institutions, rather than a plural legal order or cultural differences, best account for the low resonance of law for large-scale political issues, since citizens understand their participation in the political realm as alienated from agency, but connected to and dependent upon leaders.

2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 424 words || 
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3. Lazarus-Black, Mindie. "The Voice of a Stranger: Foreign Law Students' Experiences of Culture, Law, and Pedagogy in American Law Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p645826_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: When they arrive in the United States to acquire a master’s degree in law, the LL.M., foreign lawyers embrace the challenge of learning American law and how to think, write, and behave--first like an American law student--and then like an American lawyer. What forms of communication and understanding arise when people cross borders and meet in law school? What misunderstandings and complications arise? My analysis of the foreign attorneys’ experiences engages Georg Simmel’s (in Wolff nd) and Alfred Schuetz’s (1944) insights about what it means to be a “stranger.” I argue, following Simmel and Schuetz, that international LL.M. students’ positions as strangers make them acute observers of their fellow law students and the professors they encounter, as well as the legal education they have chosen to pursue. My work differs from that of Simmel and Schuetz, however, in that I give concrete voice to the strangers I am studying. Using concepts like “culture” and “culture shock,” “pedagogical practices,” “civil law” and “common law,” and “the practice of law,” in my interviews, I invited these strangers to think critically and cross-culturally about law, legal education, and the work of lawyers. In exploring their insights and experiences, I contribute to the on-going conversation in anthropology about the “predicament of culture” (e.g. Clifford 1988; Faubion and Marcus 2009; Fortun 2009, 2010, 2012; Marcus 2008, 2012; Starn 2012) in the twentieth-first century. My research also builds on earlier work on legal education by anthropologist Elizabeth Mertz (2007), but differs from her study in that my subjects are already lawyers, almost all of them were trained first in a civil rather than a common law tradition, and most of them were learning American law in a second language. Their success, therefore, requires that they master different rules for speaking and maintaining silence, different methods of legal reasoning, and different kinds of legal research and writing. As strangers, they must “undo” what they previously understood to be thinking like a lawyer so that they can think like an American lawyer. Their perceptions lend themselves to challenges to hegemonic forms of authority and to fissures in the dominant discourse (Garriott 2011; Kennedy 2004) that prevails at the law schools. My analysis connects the anthropology of law to the domain of legal education. In this paper and in the wider project with which I am engaged, my subjects of inquiry are both “them”–foreign lawyers who are students in American law schools–and “us,” often punctuated in their eyes as “U.S.”

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2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 36 words || 
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4. Rajkovic, Nikolas. "International Law and the Government of Justice: (Re)Conceptualizing the Rule ‘of’ Law as Rule ‘through’ Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415510_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Three interwoven claims guide mainstream understandings of the ‘rule of law’ in the practice of international politics. First, international law has emerged as a significant factor in the actual and discursive practice of international affairs. Second,

2004 - The Law and Society Association Words: 303 words || 
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5. van der Walt, Andre. "Private Law, Public Law, Civil Law" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, May 27, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p116872_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Continental European law in the Roman-Germanic tradition is heavily influenced by the sharp distinction between private law and public law. In this tradition, private law is fundamentally different from and opposed to public law – in fact, public law and especially constitutional law is justified by its restrictive and controlling function in safeguarding the private against intrusion from the public. In this sense, private rights are characteristically defensive, and private ownership of land provides the quintessential metaphor not only for all property rights, but for all private rights, which are portrayed as fences or barriers much in the way that private land is fenced in against unwanted intrusion and external threat. In this Hobbesian picture, private law protects the private against private threats, while public law protects it against state intrusions.
The constitutional protection of private interests undermines this neat division, as it simultaneously safeguards private interests and establishes the constitutional justification for legitimately eroding or even abolishing them. In this process the notion of right as barriers is placed in question, especially in the context of property rights, and a paradoxical notion emerges (as pointed out by Joseph Singer, Gregory Alexander and Robert Gordon) of property that includes defensive elements of privacy and autonomy, but also public elements of propriety, responsibility, duty, and limits.
In my paper I will analyze the notion of civil law as an alternative trope that undermines the oversimplified disjunction of private law vs public law, much as constitutional property undermines the disjunction between ownership and possession or between private property and state action. In the analysis, I will focus on the characteristic of civil law as post-constitutional law which renders the recognition and protective function of private law possible, but then only within the context of a constitutional order that extends beyond the boundaries of the purely private.

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