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2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 42 words || 
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1. Jackson, Peter. "French Policy Towards the League and the League’s Effect on French Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415429_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper will consider France's view of the League of Nations, where the League fitted into French foreign and defence policy. The paper will also consider the role played by civil society advocacy in favour of the League and its juridical internationa

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 251 words || 
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2. "Human Rights and the League of Nations: How Ideas About Human Rights Came to be Included in the Charter and Work of the League of Nations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251797_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Human rights ideas were included in the 1919 League of Nations Covenant, decades before the adoption of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Policymakers drafting the League charter considered provisions on ethnic and minority rights, religious rights, women’s rights, and labor rights. However, they only included clauses on women’s and labor rights in the Covenant. Why did policymakers include some human rights ideas and exclude others? What impact did these ideas have on the organization’s work? I argue that ideas and power both play a role, each at different stages of the process. Diplomats considered advancing a wide range of ideas to the negotiation. But they proposed just those ideas that resonated strongly with their existing interests, due to their specificity, durability, concordance, cooptibility, and framing. Once the negotiation was underway, however, powerful states played a key role in determining which ideas were included in the League charter. As the organization began to operate, the activities included in its charter acted to confine its work to those areas. The League thus pursued its women’s and labor rights mandates and took no action to promote religious or minority rights. Understanding how human rights ideas came to be incorporated in the League charter – well before they were widely institutionalized internationally – makes for an interesting and important case. More significantly, it provides insight into how new kinds of ideas can be included in the charters of new international organizations and ultimately pursued by these organization in their work on the ground.

2008 - WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Pages: 26 pages || Words: 12225 words || 
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3. Bromley, Pamela. "Human Rights and the League of Nations: How Ideas about Human Rights came to be Included in the Charter and Work of the League of Nations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, Manchester Hyatt, San Diego, California, Mar 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p237945_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Human rights ideas were included in the 1919 League of Nations Covenant, decades before the adoption of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Policymakers drafting the League charter considered provisions promoting rights for minorities, religions, women, and labor. However, they only included clauses on women’s and labor rights in the Covenant. Why did policymakers include some human rights ideas and exclude others? What impact did these ideas have on the organization’s work? I argue that ideas and power both play a role, each at different stages of the policymaking process. Diplomats considered a wide range of ideas prior to the negotiation, but they proposed only the ideas that resonated strongly with their existing interests. Once the negotiation was underway, powerful states then played a key role in determining which ideas were included in the charter. As the organization began to operate, the activities in its charter acted to confine its work to those areas. The League thus pursued its women’s and labor rights mandates and took no action to promote religious or minority rights. Understanding how human rights ideas were incorporated in the League charter – well before they were widely institutionalized internationally – makes for an interesting and important case. More significantly, it provides insight into how new kinds of ideas can be included in the charters of new international organizations and ultimately pursued by these organization on the ground.

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 648 words || 
Info
4. Allen, Ryan. "Measuring the C9 League: Comparing China’s “Ivy League” to other Elite Groupings through Global University Rankings" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p990425_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 1999, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) injected a major investment into its higher education subsector known as the 985 Project. The funding was targeted at a handful of key elite institutions and the project’s goal was to cultivate world-class universities. The government’s investment totaled around 27 billion RMB and went to just 34 universities, while only nine intuitions received about 42% of all funding from this central government investment (Yue and Zhu 2009). These nine universities have since forged the “China 9 University League” (C9 League), which have been dubbed the “Ivy League” of China (Fang et al 2013). The rationale for the limited scope of funding was that top key universities would drive the entire higher education system for the country. With disproportional share of central government funding, the C9 League is seen as the driver higher education growth and institutional research output—a key indicator for university rankings. With a greater importance being placed onto university rankings, educators and policymakers have put an emphasis on increasing higher educational institutions’ scores to compete both domestically and international. China’s route of elite making in higher education, whereby the top-level universities receive substantial financial support in order to “catch up” to their Western counterparts. In this paper, I will analyze China’s elite making higher education attempt through a comparison amongst its own universities and other global peer coalitions. Have the C9 League universities separated themselves from the other 985 Project universities in terms of university rankings? Furthermore, how do the C9 League universities compare to other elite higher education coalitions around the world in terms of university rankings? The findings in this paper will add to the growing literature on Chinese development and the country’s global reach in higher education.

This analysis of this paper will be structure into two key sections. First, I will gauge the university rankings of the C9 institutions against the other Chinese 985 Project in order to determine if these institutions are beginning to separate from the other domestic universities, creating a tiered system in China. I will then compare the international university rankings of the C9 universities with peer groupings around the world: UK’s Russell Group, Australia’s Group of Eight, Canada’s U15, and the Ivy League in the US. While these sets of universities do not all have the exact same characteristics, they all represent the top research institutions in their countries and all, except the Ivy League, were created in the past 20 years with the explicit goal of raising the respective countries’ research university capacity. The inclusion of the Ivy League is important because the concept of a Chinese “Ivy League” is used throughout the discourse (Oleksiyenko 2014; Fang 2013; Loyola 2013). For the analysis, I will use Shanghai Jiao Tong Universities’ Academic Ranking of World Universities data from 2003 to 2014, the longest continuous world rankings available.

This paper will add upon Chinese education and development literature. As the East Asian nation ascends further in sectors the world over, domestic higher education policies will have a wider reach beyond a Chinese audience. Furthermore, this paper can also build upon policy borrowing literature, in that more nations are looking to an elite model of higher education. The C9’s success or failure in elite making could provide an important factor in future policy borrowing from still developing nations.

Work Cited
Fang, S., Xu, H., Yue, Z., Li, H., Qi, Y., & Lei, B. (2013). Empirical research of advantage disciplines of C9 League. Chinese Journal of Library and Information Science Vol, 6(4).

Loyola, D. (2013). International Market for Higher Education and a Higher Education Policy: The Case of France and China.

Oleksiyenko, A. (2014). On the Shoulders of Giants? Global Science, Resource Asymmetries, and Repositioning of Research Universities in China and Russia.Comparative Education Review, 58(3), 482-508.

Yue, W., & Zhu, J. (2009). A quantitative perspective on the leading role of top universities in China. Thomson Reuters.

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