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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 502 words || 
1. Sloutsky, Vladimir. "Less is More? More or Less. When “Less is More” is Beneficial and When it is Not" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: The “Less is more” principle has transpired in multiple areas of cognitive development. In this talk, I examine when this principle does and does not hold with respect to learning and transfer of categories. There is much research in category learning that runs contrary to this principle (Billman & Knudson, 1996; Kloos & Sloutsky, 2008; Samuelson & Smith, 1999). In this research, both children and adults were more successful in learning categories whose instances had multiple overlapping features. In contrast, there is also much research supporting this principle and demonstrating that greater success was achieved when instances were simpler and had fewer features (Son, Smith, & Goldstone, 2008; 2010; Kaminski & Sloutsky, 2013). Therefore, while less structure has been shown beneficial in the latter set of findings, more structure has been shown beneficial in the former. The goal of this talk is to examine when less structure leads to success (i.e., “less is more”) and when more structure leads to success (i.e., “more is more”).

To address this question I present both published and new evidence supporting “more is more” and “less is more” in learning. Support for “more is more” stems from a set of experiments with 10-month-old infants, 4-5-year-old children, and adults. In one set of experiments, infants and young children learned two categories, one organized by color and another organized by shape. Participants succeeded when there were other variables correlating with the target dimensions, and failed otherwise. In another set of experiments, 4-to-5 year-olds and adults learned categories that included a single deterministic feature and multiple probabilistic features. Therefore, participants could learn either a rule-based category based on a single dimension or a probabilistic category based on multiple dimensions. Whereas adults learned a rule-based category that was based on a single dimension, young children learned a probabilistic category that was based on multiple dimensions (Figure 1).

Support for “less is more” stems from experiments in which 6- and 8-year-old children learned mathematical concepts from either more structured or more impoverished examples. For example, in one experiment children were trained to read bar graphs. In one condition, the bars were monochromatic and only the height of the graph was predictive of the target values, whereas in another condition the bars contained countable objects that were also predictive of the value. Participants were tested on both their initial learning and their transfer of learning to novel graphs. While learning did not differ across the conditions, transfer was significantly more successful in the monochromatic condition (Figure 2).

So when do children benefit from “more is more” and when do they benefit from “less is more”. I suggest that “more is more” is beneficial when (1) the task is to learn and (2) the “irrelevant” dimensions are correlated with the “to-be-learned” dimension. In contrast, “less is more” is beneficial (1) when the task is to generalize or transfer learning on the basis of the to-be-learned dimension or (2) when the irrelevant dimensions are not correlated with the to-be-learned dimension.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 175 words || 
2. Schlossman, Michael. "Less Treatment, Less Interest: Mexican Americans in the Los Angeles Juvenile Court During the Great Depression" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study uses original case records from the Los Angeles County Juvenile Court to examine how racial discrimination played out in court before the decline of public confidence in rehabilitation in the 1960s and 70s. Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, I compare how Mexican-American and white youth were treated by the juvenile court during the Great Depression. I find that although Mexican-American youth were more likely to enter the Los Angeles juvenile justice system, they were less likely to receive out-of-family placements because court officials viewed such placements as beneficial and were less interested in rehabilitating minority children. I compare these results with the current overrepresentation of blacks and Latinos in institutional confinement and the majority of contemporary studies that find that black youth are punished more severely than comparable whites. My research suggests that there have been major philosophical changes in how officials in the juvenile justice system view their out-of-home placements, and that the nature and patterns of discrimination in juvenile court depend upon how officials view their interventions.

2007 - American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Words: 48 words || 
3. Lareau, Alan., DCamp, Richard. and Alvarez, Isabel. "Doing More With Less--Or Less With More?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, TX, Nov 12, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <>
Publication Type: Session Presentation
Abstract: Situated between a polemic and a cry for help, this session will address a sense of crisis from the perspective of a mid-sized state university (University of Wisconsin Oshkosh) and call attention to important issues we feel that our profession, particularly the pedagogy industry, is not properly addressing.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 11 pages || Words: 5860 words || 
4. Dinsmore, Gregory. "When Less Really is Less: The Problem with Minimalist Conceptions of Human Rights" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: A common response to the failure of human rights to adequately protect against genocide and ethnic cleansing is the adoption of a minimalist approach. Minimalist approaches (as advocated by thinkers such as Michael Ignatieff) start with the idea that if we can identify the most fundamental rights, the rights upon which all others depend, then we should advocate interventions only in cases where this smaller group of rights is violated on a large scale. This would be more likely to gain wide support because contributing states would then be less likely to worry that there would be increasing demands put on their militaries and potential offenders would be less likely to worry that their sovereignty will be violated on a regular basis.

This paper will argue that the minimalist position is fundamentally flawed. It is an understandable, yet ultimately self-defeating move on the part of human rights advocates that shifts the battle to affirm human rights to the precise spot on which it is bound to fail. It will argue that human rights converge with emergency politics when the former are conceived according to a minimalist conception. This is because intervention is only recommended in extreme situations, when principled action is most likely to be overrun by pragmatic concerns. The result is that we affirm our most basic principles, those that are least conducive to compromise, in precisely those situations when they are most likely to be disregarded.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 1 words || 
5. Tonry, Michael. "RESPONSE ESSAY - Less Imprisonment, Less Crime: A Reply to Nagin" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 16, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-01-29 <>
Publication Type: Presidential Panel Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

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