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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 502 words || 
1. Sloutsky, Vladimir. "Less is More? More or Less. When “Less is More” is Beneficial and When it is Not" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2018-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: The “Less is more” principle has transpired in multiple areas of cognitive development. In this talk, I examine when this principle does and does not hold with respect to learning and transfer of categories. There is much research in category learning that runs contrary to this principle (Billman & Knudson, 1996; Kloos & Sloutsky, 2008; Samuelson & Smith, 1999). In this research, both children and adults were more successful in learning categories whose instances had multiple overlapping features. In contrast, there is also much research supporting this principle and demonstrating that greater success was achieved when instances were simpler and had fewer features (Son, Smith, & Goldstone, 2008; 2010; Kaminski & Sloutsky, 2013). Therefore, while less structure has been shown beneficial in the latter set of findings, more structure has been shown beneficial in the former. The goal of this talk is to examine when less structure leads to success (i.e., “less is more”) and when more structure leads to success (i.e., “more is more”).

To address this question I present both published and new evidence supporting “more is more” and “less is more” in learning. Support for “more is more” stems from a set of experiments with 10-month-old infants, 4-5-year-old children, and adults. In one set of experiments, infants and young children learned two categories, one organized by color and another organized by shape. Participants succeeded when there were other variables correlating with the target dimensions, and failed otherwise. In another set of experiments, 4-to-5 year-olds and adults learned categories that included a single deterministic feature and multiple probabilistic features. Therefore, participants could learn either a rule-based category based on a single dimension or a probabilistic category based on multiple dimensions. Whereas adults learned a rule-based category that was based on a single dimension, young children learned a probabilistic category that was based on multiple dimensions (Figure 1).

Support for “less is more” stems from experiments in which 6- and 8-year-old children learned mathematical concepts from either more structured or more impoverished examples. For example, in one experiment children were trained to read bar graphs. In one condition, the bars were monochromatic and only the height of the graph was predictive of the target values, whereas in another condition the bars contained countable objects that were also predictive of the value. Participants were tested on both their initial learning and their transfer of learning to novel graphs. While learning did not differ across the conditions, transfer was significantly more successful in the monochromatic condition (Figure 2).

So when do children benefit from “more is more” and when do they benefit from “less is more”. I suggest that “more is more” is beneficial when (1) the task is to learn and (2) the “irrelevant” dimensions are correlated with the “to-be-learned” dimension. In contrast, “less is more” is beneficial (1) when the task is to generalize or transfer learning on the basis of the to-be-learned dimension or (2) when the irrelevant dimensions are not correlated with the to-be-learned dimension.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 11 pages || Words: 5860 words || 
2. Dinsmore, Gregory. "When Less Really is Less: The Problem with Minimalist Conceptions of Human Rights" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2018-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: A common response to the failure of human rights to adequately protect against genocide and ethnic cleansing is the adoption of a minimalist approach. Minimalist approaches (as advocated by thinkers such as Michael Ignatieff) start with the idea that if we can identify the most fundamental rights, the rights upon which all others depend, then we should advocate interventions only in cases where this smaller group of rights is violated on a large scale. This would be more likely to gain wide support because contributing states would then be less likely to worry that there would be increasing demands put on their militaries and potential offenders would be less likely to worry that their sovereignty will be violated on a regular basis.

This paper will argue that the minimalist position is fundamentally flawed. It is an understandable, yet ultimately self-defeating move on the part of human rights advocates that shifts the battle to affirm human rights to the precise spot on which it is bound to fail. It will argue that human rights converge with emergency politics when the former are conceived according to a minimalist conception. This is because intervention is only recommended in extreme situations, when principled action is most likely to be overrun by pragmatic concerns. The result is that we affirm our most basic principles, those that are least conducive to compromise, in precisely those situations when they are most likely to be disregarded.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 7854 words || 
3. Martin, Nathan. and Brady, David. "Workers of the Less Developed World Unite? Unionization in Less Developed Countries in the Post-Material Era" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2018-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: We conduct a multi-level analysis of employed workers with the late 1990’s wave of World Values surveys in 39 less developed countries (LDCs). Controlling for sex, age, education and a class schema at the individual-level, we analyze country-level indicators of institutions, industrialization and globalization. We show that class has a significant influence on union membership across LDCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that several country-level variables affect the level of unionization, though many of the likely sources are not significant. Being an ex-communist country has a very significant, large positive effect. Signing a new IMF agreement in the survey year has a significant negative effect. Inflation has a significant positive effect and debt service has a significant negative effect. Decomposing the sample between those with and without a communist legacy, we find that class is influential in both contexts. Signing an IMF agreement is only significant in ex-communist countries, while inflation and debt service are only influent in countries without a communist legacy. Our study suggests that class remains a tremendously powerful mobilizing force across LDCs, while macro-level conditions contribute to unionization as well.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 9228 words || 
4. Schieman, Scott. and Narisada, Atsushi. "When Getting Less Than You Deserve Hurts Less: Resources and the Consequences of Feeling Underpaid" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2018-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Roughly half of American workers report feeling underpaid. Little is known about the psychological consequences of this chronic stressor and the conditions that moderate its effects. We ask: Under what conditions does feeling underpaid hurt less? In our analyses of data from a 2005 survey of U.S. workers, three new discoveries emerge: (1) the psychological consequences of feeling underpaid depends on both the outcome being considered—job dissatisfaction, anger, or depression—and the extent that one feels underpaid (i.e., “slightly” versus “severely”); (2) among the three interrelated forms of socioeconomic status—education, income, and economic hardship—only education consistently functions as a moderating/buffering resource; and (3) the key forms of objective and subjective control have surprisingly limited efficacy as buffering resources. We situate our findings within a broader discussion about “underreward” and the differential vulnerabilities associated with role-related structural constraints and subjective inequality.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 1 words || 
5. Tonry, Michael. "RESPONSE ESSAY - Less Imprisonment, Less Crime: A Reply to Nagin" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 16, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-02-23 <>
Publication Type: Presidential Panel Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

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