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Showing 1 through 5 of 3,992 records.
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2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Words: 31 words || 
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1. Lee, Myong Hwa. "Does the Level of Economic Development Affect the Level of Bioethics at the National Level?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p268640_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study attempts to demonstrate a causality between the level of economic development and the level of bioethics by comparing national bioethics committees in China, South Korea, and the United Kingdom.

2011 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 123 words || 
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2. Schupp, Paul. and Rivera, Craig. "County-Level Probation Patterns and Their Macro-Level Crime-Control Effects" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 15, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p517082_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper we examine the potential macro-level crime-control effects of county-level probation sentencing and revocation patterns. Using a sample of U.S. counties from 1990-2000, we apply a technique for statistically modeling developmental trajectories to identify distinct patterns in how counties used probation revocations over time. We then estimate the macro-level crime-control effects in 2000 that resulted from counties having followed particular patterns of probation revocations. We are also able to disaggregate the probation data and thereby identify distinct trajectories for probation revocations, resulting specifically from either technical violations or new crimes, for which probationers were then sent to prison. We also estimate the potential crime-control effects for 2000 of these sanctioning patterns during the 1990s. Implications for future research are discussed.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 42 pages || Words: 11705 words || 
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3. Plutzer, Eric. and Berkman, Michael. "Do Street Level Bureaucrats Enhance Policy Responsiveness? Classroom-Level Implementation of State Standards for Teaching Evolution" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210507_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How well do public policies conform to the preferences of the public? This question, lying at the intersection of research on mass political behavior and political institutions, underlies all empirical studies of policy responsiveness (e.g., Miller and Stokes 1983; Page and Shapiro 1992; Erikson, Wright & McIver 1993; Wleizen 1995, Erikson, McKuen and Stimson 2002; Berkman and Plutzer 2005). These works assess how the legislative process may be an expression of popular sovereignty.

However, we argue that public preferences can not only influence laws and regulations, but their implementation as well. Many policies must be implemented by “street level bureaucrats” and others who typically work at much lower levels in the federal system than those who wrote the policies (Lipsky 1980). The many studies of police officers, firefighters, teachers, case workers, and other street level bureaucrats typically show that these unelected public employees exercise considerable discretion in how to implement policy. However, none have explicitly examined this discretion within the framework of policy responsiveness.

Using data from our national survey of 938 high school biology teachers, we show how one kind of street level bureaucrat – teachers – exercise discretion in implementing state educational standards for science education. We focus on the teaching of evolution – a topic for which we can expect local public preferences to be salient, stable and discernable. We show that the treatment of evolution in America’s classrooms is influenced by teacher’s qualifications and expertise and by the social composition of the community. State standards have only a marginal impact on what is taught in class. But the greatest effect of standards is seen for the least qualified teachers.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 10296 words || 
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4. Rice, Ronald. and Lehr, Jennifer. "Individual-Level and Network-Level Explanations of Organizational Unit Communication Effectiveness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p168969_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study assesses primary influences (communication frequency, purpose of the communication, primary medium, reason for using that medium, preferred medium, distance, and network location) on unit effectiveness (timeliness and effectiveness), at both individual and unit-network levels of analysis. E-mail is the primary channel of communication used, followed by face-to-face, telephone and meetings. At an individual-level, regression analysis shows that e-mail as a primary medium is negatively, distance as a cause of using the primary medium is negatively, and ease of use as a cause of using the primary medium is positively related to average unit communication effectiveness. At a unit-network level, multiple matrix regression analysis shows that communication frequency, sharing, coordination, ease, content, and redundancy significantly explain specific unit communication effectiveness. The primary conceptual and methodological conclusion is that unit-network-level analysis provides both greater statistical and substantive explanation of organizational communication effectiveness than does traditional individual-level analysis.

2005 - International Studies Association Words: 127 words || 
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5. Joachim, Jutta. "Collective Action in a Multi-Level Setting: Feminist Organizing at the Regional and International Level" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p70042_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Collective action increasingly takes place in a multi-level setting where non-governmental organizations (NGOs) no longer only encounter opportunities at the national level, but also at the regional and international level. While scholars are cognizant of these ongoing changes, we still know very little about how the presence of different levels affects the strategies and tactics of non-state actors. This paper will help fill this gap in the literature drawing on various elements from the social movement theory and empirical evidence from women's organizations mobilizing around violence against women and reproductive rights. It shows how NGOs strategically exploit opportunities at both the regional as well as the international level and adjust their framing activities to varying institutional contexts to mobilize broad-based support for their ideas.

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