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2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Words: 31 words || 
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1. Lee, Myong Hwa. "Does the Level of Economic Development Affect the Level of Bioethics at the National Level?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p268640_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study attempts to demonstrate a causality between the level of economic development and the level of bioethics by comparing national bioethics committees in China, South Korea, and the United Kingdom.

2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Spiker, Russell. "Couple-level Factors Affecting Sexual Minority Health: Taking Health Disparities Research to the “Next Level”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1121629_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Sexual minority populations experience health disparities relative to the heterosexual population due to sexual minority stress. Several existing studies compare patterns of self-rated health between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals, but research has yet to account for the impact of couple-level factors such as demographic similarity and shared resources. Using the 1999-2014 National Health Interview Surveys, the present study compares different-sex married, same-sex male cohabiting, same-sex female cohabiting, and different-sex cohabiting couples on a measure of couple-level health (specifically, whether both partners self-report poor or fair health). Findings suggest that the health of male same-sex couples is robust to socioeconomic and sociodemographic characteristics and comparable to that of different-sex married couples, but the same factors play a pivotal role in protecting the overall health of same-sex female couples. After controlling for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, same-sex female couples appear to experience heightened risk of both members having disadvantaged health status compared to different-sex married and cohabiting couples. Implications for same-sex female couples’ health regarding stress proliferation due to the social stressors of sexual minority status and gender minority status are explored as a theoretical explanation.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 143 words || 
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3. Jones, Roderick. "The Role of Community-level Conditions in Producing Street Segment Level Crime: An Exploration of Direct Effects, Moderating Effects, and Model Fit" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1278351_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: In this study, we test a multilevel theoretical model that incorporates measures of routine activities and social disorganization at the street level and measures of community structural conditions at the neighborhood level. The main purpose of the study is to determine whether community level conditions (1) have direct effects on street segment crime (2) moderate the effects of street segment conditions on crime and (3) improve overall model fit of street segment-only models. To test the multilevel theoretical model we constructed a multilevel dataset that nested 36,541 street segments in 451 census block groups in Portland, Oregon. To account for complexities of a multilevel spatial dataset, we estimated models using multilevel negative binomial regression with controls for spatial autocorrelation. Finally, we used likelihood ratio tests to explore how model fit changed when community level conditions were included in street segment level crime models.

2009 - 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 374 words || 
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4. Lozano, Ricardo. "Rates of return to investments in education at different educational levels in countries at different levels of development" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Francis Marion Hotel, Charleston, South Carolina, Mar 22, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p297844_index.html>
Publication Type: Dissertation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Through time, numerous researchers have conducted studies on rates of return to investments in education at both, the national and international levels. Many of these researchers disagree in regards to where these returns are the highest, and thus, often conflict on their recommendations for the allocation of resources in education. For example, Martin Carnoy stated that returns to investments in education vary according to the level of development of the particular country (M. Carnoy, 1972, 1995a; M. Carnoy, Marenbach, D., 1975) George Psacharopoulos, on the other hand, claimed that the highest returns to investments in education are observed at the primary education level, regardless of the country’s level of development (G. Psacharopoulos, 1981; G. Psacharopoulos, Patrinos, H. A., 2004). After closely observing and analyzing different opinions regarding investments in education, Krueger and Lindahl (2001) concluded that these discrepancies are mostly due to errors in measurement and inconsistencies in the data compared.
Carnoy and Psacharopoulos’ discrepancies concerning where the rates of return to investments in education are highest, are most likely due to the fact that often, data utilized are different; gathered from different sources, at different points in time, and using different data collection techniques. According the Psacharopoulos and Patrinos (2004), the real reason for rates of returns not being fully comparable are the data used and methodologies applied when estimating these indicators. Since the discrepancies in results among studies on returns to investments in education are believed to be the result of inconsistencies in the data compared and methodologies, the purpose of this dissertation will be to specifically challenge Psacharopoulos (1972a, 1972b, 1981, 1985, 1989, 1994, 2006) concerning the sources of his data, its comparability, and thus, his conclusions regarding returns to investments in education. This will be accomplished through the generation of robust international indicators of rates of return to investments in education. More specifically, through this dissertation the researcher will (1) estimate robust indicators of rates of return to education through improvements in data collection and comparability, (2) observe the effect of level of development on the newly generated rates of return to education and its significance, and (4) provide enough evidence to suggest whether the results are consistent with the hypotheses proposed by Psacharopoulos or Carnoy concerning investments in education.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 42 pages || Words: 11705 words || 
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5. Plutzer, Eric. and Berkman, Michael. "Do Street Level Bureaucrats Enhance Policy Responsiveness? Classroom-Level Implementation of State Standards for Teaching Evolution" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210507_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How well do public policies conform to the preferences of the public? This question, lying at the intersection of research on mass political behavior and political institutions, underlies all empirical studies of policy responsiveness (e.g., Miller and Stokes 1983; Page and Shapiro 1992; Erikson, Wright & McIver 1993; Wleizen 1995, Erikson, McKuen and Stimson 2002; Berkman and Plutzer 2005). These works assess how the legislative process may be an expression of popular sovereignty.

However, we argue that public preferences can not only influence laws and regulations, but their implementation as well. Many policies must be implemented by “street level bureaucrats” and others who typically work at much lower levels in the federal system than those who wrote the policies (Lipsky 1980). The many studies of police officers, firefighters, teachers, case workers, and other street level bureaucrats typically show that these unelected public employees exercise considerable discretion in how to implement policy. However, none have explicitly examined this discretion within the framework of policy responsiveness.

Using data from our national survey of 938 high school biology teachers, we show how one kind of street level bureaucrat – teachers – exercise discretion in implementing state educational standards for science education. We focus on the teaching of evolution – a topic for which we can expect local public preferences to be salient, stable and discernable. We show that the treatment of evolution in America’s classrooms is influenced by teacher’s qualifications and expertise and by the social composition of the community. State standards have only a marginal impact on what is taught in class. But the greatest effect of standards is seen for the least qualified teachers.

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