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2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 16592 words || 
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1. Schwarz, John. "A New Look at Liberty: Classical Liberty, Basic Economic Rights, and the Construction of American Social Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65082_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Starting from classical negative liberty, this paper shows how a civil regime of private property under liberty must assure to each individual the opportunity to provide a socially decent standard of living through work as measured by current societal norms. The paper then shows how contemporary economic and social policies of the United States, expending more than $1 trillion annually, relate to and logicaly grow out of this concept of liberty.

2011 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 392 words || 
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2. Allen, Thomas. "Reimagining Liberty: The Statue of Liberty and Jewish Diaspora" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p509476_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: What has become Emma Lazarus’s most famous poem, “The New Colossus,” commemorates the trans-Atlantic gesture through which Frédéric August Bartholdi’s statue La Liberté éclairant le monde crossed the sea and became the American Statue of Liberty. However, while Lazarus acknowledges the Enlightenment-influenced ideals that Bartholdi intended to commemorate through his design, her poem also interprets the statue as an icon of Jewish faith. Lazarus’s description of the statue as the “Mother of Exiles” must be interpreted in the context of the arrival in New York of thousands of Russian Jewish refugees fleeing the pogroms that began in 1881; although the Statue of Liberty was not dedicated until 1886, Lazarus had written the poem in 1883, two years after she had begun working with immigrants on Ward’s Island and in the Lower East Side. Critics such as Shira Wolosky, Max Cavitch and Gregory Eiselein have noted that the poet’s choice to emphasize the act of illumination reproduces a pattern in her work of employing the imagery of the lamp to evoke a diasporic conception of Jewish consciousness, enlightenment, or renewal. Thus, “The New Colossus” commemorates a monument to a self-consciously modern and secular political liberalism via a reference to a very different religious tradition of faith and redemption.

But what kind of integration between Jewish history and Enlightenment liberalism does this juxtaposition of poem and statue produce? Critics such as Eiselein and Cavitch have tended to emphasize the irony of the poem’s welcoming message appearing in an era of strengthening anti-immigration sentiment in America. While such questions of race and ethnicity are certainly crucial to understanding the meanings produced by the poem in its historical context, we ought not to neglect the poem’s equally salient concern with the question of how religious faith, especially that of a minority group, can be situated in relation to Enlightenment liberalism. That is to say, the poem stages the problem of how a national symbol such as the Statue of Liberty can be situated simultaneously within two different, possibly incompatible narratives: the American mythology of freedom from Old World tyranny attributed to foundational national figures whose outlook was either Protestant or deistic, and the narrative of Jewish diaspora and renewal. As a reading of an icon, “The New Colossus” thus reveals the ongoing tension in American public narratives between religion and secularism, and between different religious traditions.

2015 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 254 words || 
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3. Gibson, Troy. "The Liberty Exercise: Helping Students Think Critically and Consistently about Liberty" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 15, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p950825_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This exercise exposes students to a variety of concepts, philosophical questions, critical thoughts, ideologies, and policy issues setting the stage for an introductory political science course. In short, it gets them thinking about how political theory relates to public policy by placing them in the same position as the American founders, charged with constructing a broad-based set of constitutional principles while also considering the implications thereof. Most students have a bias towards individual liberty, so the exercise starts there with a proposal statement defining the scope of liberty very broadly (e.g., “A person should be free to do what they want”). With approving students, the instructor follows up with a series of “what if” scenarios featuring hypothetical individuals attempting to exercise liberty in accordance with the proposal statement. Most often, affirming students will not have considered the full implications of the statement and usually reconsider their yes vote, thus joining others in seeking to restrict individual liberty in some way. Then the instructor makes new proposals with more restrictive language (e.g., “A person should be free to do what they want, provided their choices cause no ________________ harm to others”). Though few students will want to stick with the original liberty statement (implying anarchy), they strongly disagree among themselves on where to draw the line with each subsequent statement. By the end, students feel pressure to think more consistently and appreciate the fact that constitution and policy making can hardly be reduced to a bumper sticker slogan.

2011 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 239 words || 
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4. Scully, Mark. "Justice Kennedy and Constitutional Liberty: Equality and Liberty in Republican Government" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Crowne Plaza, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 17, 2011 <Not Available>. 2018-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p526115_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While liberty is rightly the focus of a great deal of scholarship on Justice Anthony Kennedy, there has been too little focus on how Justice Kennedy’s concept of liberty relates to constitutionalism and republican institutions. In this paper, I argue he understands the 5th and 14th amendments protecting the individual liberty of all citizens, even unflavored groups, specifically directed towards the end of participating in republican government, as it is institutionalized by the Constitution.

I analyze two crucial cases that are commonly thought to reveal Kennedy’s expansive conception of autonomous and individualistic liberty: Planned Parenthood v. Casey and Lawrence v. Texas. I find that instead of individualism, both of these cases articulate the necessary equality for the republican liberty to participate in the community’s rational discourse, a discourse upon which republican self-government relies. Finally, I turn to an important separation of powers case, Clinton v. New York, to reveal the consistency between my interpretation of his substantive due process and his institutional jurisprudence, which confirms the importance and centrality of Justice Kennedy’s conception of republicanism.

This paper concludes that a new reading of Casey, Lawrence and Clinton, one which attempts to show the coherent notion of liberty in all three, demonstrates that he does not conceive of the Court as the protector of constitutional liberty understood as atomized individuality, but instead as the guarantor of those aspects of free citizenship that are necessary to participate in a constitutional republic.

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