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2011 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 392 words || 
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1. Allen, Thomas. "Reimagining Liberty: The Statue of Liberty and Jewish Diaspora" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, <Not Available>. 2018-07-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p509476_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: What has become Emma Lazarus’s most famous poem, “The New Colossus,” commemorates the trans-Atlantic gesture through which Frédéric August Bartholdi’s statue La Liberté éclairant le monde crossed the sea and became the American Statue of Liberty. However, while Lazarus acknowledges the Enlightenment-influenced ideals that Bartholdi intended to commemorate through his design, her poem also interprets the statue as an icon of Jewish faith. Lazarus’s description of the statue as the “Mother of Exiles” must be interpreted in the context of the arrival in New York of thousands of Russian Jewish refugees fleeing the pogroms that began in 1881; although the Statue of Liberty was not dedicated until 1886, Lazarus had written the poem in 1883, two years after she had begun working with immigrants on Ward’s Island and in the Lower East Side. Critics such as Shira Wolosky, Max Cavitch and Gregory Eiselein have noted that the poet’s choice to emphasize the act of illumination reproduces a pattern in her work of employing the imagery of the lamp to evoke a diasporic conception of Jewish consciousness, enlightenment, or renewal. Thus, “The New Colossus” commemorates a monument to a self-consciously modern and secular political liberalism via a reference to a very different religious tradition of faith and redemption.

But what kind of integration between Jewish history and Enlightenment liberalism does this juxtaposition of poem and statue produce? Critics such as Eiselein and Cavitch have tended to emphasize the irony of the poem’s welcoming message appearing in an era of strengthening anti-immigration sentiment in America. While such questions of race and ethnicity are certainly crucial to understanding the meanings produced by the poem in its historical context, we ought not to neglect the poem’s equally salient concern with the question of how religious faith, especially that of a minority group, can be situated in relation to Enlightenment liberalism. That is to say, the poem stages the problem of how a national symbol such as the Statue of Liberty can be situated simultaneously within two different, possibly incompatible narratives: the American mythology of freedom from Old World tyranny attributed to foundational national figures whose outlook was either Protestant or deistic, and the narrative of Jewish diaspora and renewal. As a reading of an icon, “The New Colossus” thus reveals the ongoing tension in American public narratives between religion and secularism, and between different religious traditions.

2015 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 254 words || 
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2. Gibson, Troy. "The Liberty Exercise: Helping Students Think Critically and Consistently about Liberty" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 15, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-07-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p950825_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This exercise exposes students to a variety of concepts, philosophical questions, critical thoughts, ideologies, and policy issues setting the stage for an introductory political science course. In short, it gets them thinking about how political theory relates to public policy by placing them in the same position as the American founders, charged with constructing a broad-based set of constitutional principles while also considering the implications thereof. Most students have a bias towards individual liberty, so the exercise starts there with a proposal statement defining the scope of liberty very broadly (e.g., “A person should be free to do what they want”). With approving students, the instructor follows up with a series of “what if” scenarios featuring hypothetical individuals attempting to exercise liberty in accordance with the proposal statement. Most often, affirming students will not have considered the full implications of the statement and usually reconsider their yes vote, thus joining others in seeking to restrict individual liberty in some way. Then the instructor makes new proposals with more restrictive language (e.g., “A person should be free to do what they want, provided their choices cause no ________________ harm to others”). Though few students will want to stick with the original liberty statement (implying anarchy), they strongly disagree among themselves on where to draw the line with each subsequent statement. By the end, students feel pressure to think more consistently and appreciate the fact that constitution and policy making can hardly be reduced to a bumper sticker slogan.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 182 words || 
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3. Van Nuland, Shirley. and Scott, Hannah. "Evaluating Civil Liberties Literacy and Attitudes towards Civil Liberties of Teacher Candidates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-07-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431150_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Each year, representatives of the Canadian Civil Liberties Education Trust prepare and conduct presentations at most Ontario faculties of education which engage teacher candidates in discussions in making choices regarding freedoms, equality issues, discrimination, teaching resources, violence, etc. The overall purpose of this study is to examine what teacher candidates know and understand about civil liberties pre- and post-presentation. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to determine 1) the knowledge of teacher candidates on civil liberties and rights, 2) the attitudinal response of teacher candidates concerning the teaching of civil liberties and rights, 3) the change in thinking and response to civil liberties and rights from pre-seminar to post-seminar, and 4) the impact of direct teaching of critical thinking around civil liberties. This study examines the results of pre and post tests surrounding a Civil Liberties education lecture. Pre-seminar results show that knowledge of civil liberties and freedoms is very American based. Statistical tests reveal that on 19 items, only 4 items significantly changed after training. Implications for education practice and future directions in research will be discussed.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Words: 178 words || 
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4. Boutin, Sean. "The Development of Civil Liberties Within and Across the Fifty States: Introducing the State Civil Liberties Database (1776-2008)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-07-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p361007_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How different are the 50 state declarations of rights and liberties? This paper introduces both a newly constructed database and a unique method to search, track, and analyze constitutional innovation in historical state constitutions. The State Civil Liberties Database (SCLD) contains the complete and exhaustive historical record for all state declarations of rights and liberties for the years 1776-2008. The digital catalogue therefore contains every version of the document, as well as, any and all changes (amendment, revision, or repeal). While there are multiple ways of harvesting this database, the MPSA paper introduces a unique tool for dealing with this complexity: computational forensic linguistics. Since the Spring of 2008, the SCLD was utilized in beta testing to develop a unique software program specifically tailored for the analysis of legal documents. This software technology, originally designed to detect student plagiarism, allows researches to search for the germination of specific language, compare the degree of similarity between states (on the clause, sentence, or document level), trace adaptations over time, and produce a metric for regional variability at any time period.

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