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2011 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 239 words || 
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1. Scully, Mark. "Justice Kennedy and Constitutional Liberty: Equality and Liberty in Republican Government" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Crowne Plaza, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 17, 2011 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p526115_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While liberty is rightly the focus of a great deal of scholarship on Justice Anthony Kennedy, there has been too little focus on how Justice Kennedy’s concept of liberty relates to constitutionalism and republican institutions. In this paper, I argue he understands the 5th and 14th amendments protecting the individual liberty of all citizens, even unflavored groups, specifically directed towards the end of participating in republican government, as it is institutionalized by the Constitution.

I analyze two crucial cases that are commonly thought to reveal Kennedy’s expansive conception of autonomous and individualistic liberty: Planned Parenthood v. Casey and Lawrence v. Texas. I find that instead of individualism, both of these cases articulate the necessary equality for the republican liberty to participate in the community’s rational discourse, a discourse upon which republican self-government relies. Finally, I turn to an important separation of powers case, Clinton v. New York, to reveal the consistency between my interpretation of his substantive due process and his institutional jurisprudence, which confirms the importance and centrality of Justice Kennedy’s conception of republicanism.

This paper concludes that a new reading of Casey, Lawrence and Clinton, one which attempts to show the coherent notion of liberty in all three, demonstrates that he does not conceive of the Court as the protector of constitutional liberty understood as atomized individuality, but instead as the guarantor of those aspects of free citizenship that are necessary to participate in a constitutional republic.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 182 words || 
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2. Van Nuland, Shirley. and Scott, Hannah. "Evaluating Civil Liberties Literacy and Attitudes towards Civil Liberties of Teacher Candidates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431150_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Each year, representatives of the Canadian Civil Liberties Education Trust prepare and conduct presentations at most Ontario faculties of education which engage teacher candidates in discussions in making choices regarding freedoms, equality issues, discrimination, teaching resources, violence, etc. The overall purpose of this study is to examine what teacher candidates know and understand about civil liberties pre- and post-presentation. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to determine 1) the knowledge of teacher candidates on civil liberties and rights, 2) the attitudinal response of teacher candidates concerning the teaching of civil liberties and rights, 3) the change in thinking and response to civil liberties and rights from pre-seminar to post-seminar, and 4) the impact of direct teaching of critical thinking around civil liberties. This study examines the results of pre and post tests surrounding a Civil Liberties education lecture. Pre-seminar results show that knowledge of civil liberties and freedoms is very American based. Statistical tests reveal that on 19 items, only 4 items significantly changed after training. Implications for education practice and future directions in research will be discussed.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Words: 178 words || 
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3. Boutin, Sean. "The Development of Civil Liberties Within and Across the Fifty States: Introducing the State Civil Liberties Database (1776-2008)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p361007_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How different are the 50 state declarations of rights and liberties? This paper introduces both a newly constructed database and a unique method to search, track, and analyze constitutional innovation in historical state constitutions. The State Civil Liberties Database (SCLD) contains the complete and exhaustive historical record for all state declarations of rights and liberties for the years 1776-2008. The digital catalogue therefore contains every version of the document, as well as, any and all changes (amendment, revision, or repeal). While there are multiple ways of harvesting this database, the MPSA paper introduces a unique tool for dealing with this complexity: computational forensic linguistics. Since the Spring of 2008, the SCLD was utilized in beta testing to develop a unique software program specifically tailored for the analysis of legal documents. This software technology, originally designed to detect student plagiarism, allows researches to search for the germination of specific language, compare the degree of similarity between states (on the clause, sentence, or document level), trace adaptations over time, and produce a metric for regional variability at any time period.

2015 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 254 words || 
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4. Gibson, Troy. "The Liberty Exercise: Helping Students Think Critically and Consistently about Liberty" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 15, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p950825_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This exercise exposes students to a variety of concepts, philosophical questions, critical thoughts, ideologies, and policy issues setting the stage for an introductory political science course. In short, it gets them thinking about how political theory relates to public policy by placing them in the same position as the American founders, charged with constructing a broad-based set of constitutional principles while also considering the implications thereof. Most students have a bias towards individual liberty, so the exercise starts there with a proposal statement defining the scope of liberty very broadly (e.g., “A person should be free to do what they want”). With approving students, the instructor follows up with a series of “what if” scenarios featuring hypothetical individuals attempting to exercise liberty in accordance with the proposal statement. Most often, affirming students will not have considered the full implications of the statement and usually reconsider their yes vote, thus joining others in seeking to restrict individual liberty in some way. Then the instructor makes new proposals with more restrictive language (e.g., “A person should be free to do what they want, provided their choices cause no ________________ harm to others”). Though few students will want to stick with the original liberty statement (implying anarchy), they strongly disagree among themselves on where to draw the line with each subsequent statement. By the end, students feel pressure to think more consistently and appreciate the fact that constitution and policy making can hardly be reduced to a bumper sticker slogan.

2002 - American Political Science Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 16592 words || 
Info
5. Schwarz, John. "A New Look at Liberty: Classical Liberty, Basic Economic Rights, and the Construction of American Social Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2002 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p65082_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Starting from classical negative liberty, this paper shows how a civil regime of private property under liberty must assure to each individual the opportunity to provide a socially decent standard of living through work as measured by current societal norms. The paper then shows how contemporary economic and social policies of the United States, expending more than $1 trillion annually, relate to and logicaly grow out of this concept of liberty.

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