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2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 99 words || 
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1. Leigey, Margaret. "A Woman's Life Before Serving Life: Examining the Negative Pre-Incarceration Life Events of Female Life-Sentenced Inmates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 04, 2009 <Not Available>. 2018-12-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p371730_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the increase in the number of females incarcerated, there is a paucity of research concerning female life-sentenced inmates in the United States. Using a nationally representative dataset containing the largest known sample of female life-sentenced inmates, the purpose of the present research is to examine the pre-incarceration traumatic experiences of female life-sentenced inmates. Results indicate that female life-sentenced inmates were more likely to experience traumatic events, in particular abuse, than either male life-sentenced inmates or other female inmates. Logistic regression analyses indicate that abuse is significantly associated with incarceration for a life sentence in both gender specific models.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 308 words || 
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2. Anarbaeva, Samara. "Gendered Avatar in Second Life: One Woman’s Journey from First Life to Second Life" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-12-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p365253_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: When we are given the chance to have a second life online, we often choose to be ourselves sometimes with a little something extra, for example, younger looking skin or taller figure. Other times we choose a slightly different direction in terms of race and/or gender. This paper explores the construction of a Second Life avatar’s identity in terms of race and gender. Second Life is a growing 3D cyber location inhabited by avatars, who participate in interactions on a daily basis. In Second Life, users can embody a virtual body similar to or different from their non-virtual body. Avatars are created by people who sit behind the computer and possess their own set of lived experiences, identities, characteristics, and beliefs. This work describes several avatar’s journeys on Second Life focusing on the intersections of offline and online materializations of race and gender identities. In creating a second self, how do power imbalances based on gender and ethnicity within global space shape the experiences of the creator? What social and communicative issues emerge through the Second Life existences? These are some of the important questions the communication scholars need to focus when studying technology-mediated communication. In my ethnographic work, I examine the steps an individual takes after an avatar becomes a resident on Second Life in order to respond to these questions. After living on Second Life for over a year, I have accumulated experiences of visiting and exploring hundreds of islands and making Second Life friends. I write about my journey and analyze my narrative using the frameworks suggested by Lisa Nakamura’s Digitizing Race and Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet, as well as Tom Boellstorff’s Coming of Age in Second Life. Through this journey of avatar construction, I argue that the identity creation in Second Life is a creative reconstruction of one's identity offline.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 109 words || 
Info
3. Nellis, Ashley. "Still Life: Current Estimates of Life, LWOP, and Virtual Life Sentences across the U.S." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2018-12-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1147390_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Life sentences have become a common fixture of the American criminal justice system. For a variety of reasons that are explored in this paper, states increasingly rely on decades-long incapacitation, sometimes lasting to the end of life, as a favored public safety tool for serious offenders. This paper updates calculations from 2012 on the prevalence of life sentences (both with parole and without parole) around the country, and incorporates a first-ever comprehensive estimate of “virtual life sentences” to measure the use of sentences amounting to 50 years or more. The paper concludes with recommendations for scaling back the overuse of life and virtual life sentences in the U.S.

2003 - American Sociological Association Words: 3 words || 
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4. O'Rand, Angela. "Life Course Capital and Life Course Risk: Stratification and the Life Course." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2018-12-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106123_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: (to be uploaded)

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 568 words || 
Info
5. Greene, Elizabeth. "From life skills to the facts of life: Examining governmentality in life skills-based sexuality education for pre-service teachers in Zambia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2018-12-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p718356_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many international health experts, social scientists, policymakers, and educators consider life skills-based sexuality education to be an effective solution for preventing unwanted pregnancies and sexually-transmitted infections like HIV/AIDS. The rationale is that youth need certain psychosocial skills (“life skills”) in order to use knowledge about disease and reproduction when contemplating and enacting sexual behavior (World Health Organization, 1993). Life skills-based sexuality education has been implemented in numerous countries around the world, including Zambia where approximately one out of six people is seropositive (Ministry of Health, 2010). The national curriculum emphasizes ten core skills including creative thinking, critical thinking, self awareness, decision making, problem solving, effective communication, coping with stress and emotions, empathy, and interpersonal skills (Ministry of Education, 1996). The skills are to be taught to learners using interactive pedagogies such as role play, games, and group discussion, and have been integrated throughout the academic curriculum.

At the same time, scholars such as Nikolas Rose (1990, 1998) and Barbara Cruikshank (1993) have utilized Michel Foucault’s theory of governmentality (1979/1991) to demonstrate how technologies, including but not limited to schooling, are employed in the production of particular mentalities and skills which are necessary for the development of self-governing citizens. Foucault’s view of power does not only focus on acts of domination by social and political elites but also how social institutions such as schools, hospitals, and penitentiaries, as well as science and knowledge, exercise power over and through individuals. These technologies of power transfer the responsibility for citizens’ health and wellbeing from inter/national governments’ actions to individuals’ choices and behaviors.

The purpose of this paper is to examine how life skills-based sexuality education produces Foucauldian self-governing mentalities and skills in Zambian learners and how this contributes to the development of subjectivities essential for the propagation and maintenance of inter/national neoliberal government structures. The analysis will be conducted by drawing upon ethnographic observations of pre-service education classrooms, interviews with lecturers and student teachers, and examinations of relevant policies, curricula, and texts. As the life skills-based sexuality curriculum does not address structural inter/national inequalities but leads to the inculcation of skills and attitudes necessary for their maintenance, it is likely that Zambian youth will continue to struggle in expressing their sexualities and experiencing health and wellbeing. This examination is significant for understanding the relation of schools and inter/national states and for revisioning possibilities for sexuality education in the country.

Cruikshank, B. (1993). Revolutions within: Self-government and self-esteem. Economy and Society, 22(3), 327-344.

Foucault, M. (1979/1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality, p. 87-104 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ministry of Education. (1996). Educating our future: National policy on education. Lusaka: Zambia Educational Publishing House.

Ministry of Health. (2010). Zambia country report -- Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS and the Universal Access: Reporting period January 2008 - December 2009. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.

Rose, N. S. (1990). Governing the soul: The shaping of the private self. London: Routledge.

Rose, N. S. (1998). Inventing our selves: Psychology, power, and personhood. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

World Health Organization Division of Mental Health. (1993). Life skills education for children and adolescents in schools: Introduction and guidelines to facilitate the development and implementation of life skills programmes. Geneva: Division of Mental Health, WHO.

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