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2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 37 pages || Words: 8874 words || 
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1. Caress, Stanley. "The Popularity of Legislative Term Limits: Public Opinion in a Non-Term-Limited State" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2018-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p280649_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Twenty-one states imposed term limits on their state legislature even though in six of those states either court decisions or legislative action rescinded them. Most voters favored term limit for reasons that can be grouped into the four motivational categories: Ideological; Partisan; Reformist; Skepticism.
Georgia has no limits on the number of times a state legislator can run for reelection. This study investigates the extent of popular support for changing two current features of Georgia state government: the length of the state legislature’s session and the number of times an incumbent can seek reelection. It also has a 40 day a year limit on its legislative session.
The survey initially found that public attention to state government is markedly low. Only 5.1% of the respondents said they closely follow the actions of the state legislature, while 25.4% followed it “somewhat.” Additionally, 33.2% reported that they followed it “only a little” and 34.4% said “not at all” with 2% decline/missing. The large percentage of respondents who said they had little or no information on the state legislature (67.7%) apparently impacted the answers to the following question on legislature performance. When asked to rate the performance of the state legislature a relatively large percentage (26.2%) declined to answer. Of those who did answer a low 1.6% said it did a “very good” job, and 19.5% said a “pretty good” job, with the largest proportion (39.8%) rating the performance as ”just OK.” Only 12.9% felt its performance was ”poor.”
The key question on the length of the legislative session found that 23.8% answered that 40 days were long enough, while 27.7% said an extra week was OK, and 19.1% thought an extra month was acceptable, but only 15.6% would accept a session lasting an entire year. Again, a large percentage (15.6%) gave a declined/missing response.
The term limit question produced the following replies: 26.6% favored no limits; 36.3% said 4 terms (8 years) was most desirable, while 15.6% favored 6 terms (12 years) and 5.8% supported the more lenient 10 terms (20 years), with 16% declined/missing. The ideology of the sample had the following breakdown: 27.7% described themselves as “conservative;” 26.6% said they were “moderately conservative;” 22.3% described themselves as “moderately liberal, while 14.8% said they were “liberal,” with 9% declined/missing.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 42 pages || Words: 14482 words || 
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2. Heckel, Heather. "Transnational Activism for children: The limited and limiting role of the US in the case of child soldiers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2018-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p74172_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The past twenty-five years have seen a rapid and broad proliferation of transnational advocacy around a myriad of issues including environmental protection, landmines, women’s rights and human rights. While activists have been engaged in seeking new global standards, the United States has increasingly resisted these standards including the Child Rights Convention, the International Criminal Court, the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. US opposition has occurred for a variety of reasons including concerns over encroachment on US sovereignty, efficiency, accountability and domestic elections.

This paper utilizes one case, the issue of child soldiers, to evaluate the roles and impact of activists and the US government during the process of establishing a human rights standard. To assess the impact of the US on the transnational campaign against the use of child soldiers, this study briefly examines the emergence of the issue on the international ‘agenda’ and the negotiation process for a standard within the United Nations. First, I argue that transnational activists were responsible for the emergence of a campaign on child soldiers and that the US played no relevant role during this stage. However, the US role dramatically increased when the UN began to address the issue in 1984. At that time, the political opportunity structure of UN negotiations ensured that the US position highly influenced and limited the final outcome.

This brief study illustrates the complexity of international relations debates over power and influence. While a narrow view of the case shows the US limiting the influence of transnational activists, a more detailed analysis reveals the critical roles of activists who placed the issue on the international agenda in spite of limited US interest. Additionally, an historical analysis also reveals areas where transnational activists exerted significant influence outside of arenas dominated by the US - such as within UN offices and in regional conferences. Ultimately, one can conclude that transnational activism has diverse impact, but when facing the hegemon its impact was curtailed.

2012 - BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL" Words: unavailable || 
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3. Mustafa Tagma, Halit. "Reason's Limits, and IR's Limiting Function" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL", Old Town district of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Scotland UK, Jun 20, 2012 <Not Available>. 2018-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p599885_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 71 pages || Words: 21832 words || 
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4. Ahram, Ariel. "Limited Wars and Limited States: The Devolution of Violence in Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p211683_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper accounts for the origins and persistence of different models of coercive military organizations among developing states. Using a case study of Indonesia, it argues that the experience of decolonization wars embedded a model of decentralized control over local militias, giving the state mediated and uncertain power over the application of violence in its territory. This model became path dependent as the state was able to stabilize its relationship with local violence wielders by increasing the coercive and fiscal power located at the center and isolating local actors from potentially competing sources of central patronage, allowing the state to become militia’s sole sponsor. This system, however, was only sustainable as long as the international environment remained benign, since the militias were still difficult to control and coordinate centrally. Indonesia’s democratic opening broke the isolation of militias from
alternative sources of patronage, leading to a break down in internal order, but as long the international system permits them, such weak states can remain brokers for local violence without outright collapse.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 19394 words || 
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5. Maoz, Zeev. "The Unlimited Use of the Limited Use of Force: Israeli Strategy of Limited Warfare, 1949-2003" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2018-11-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73689_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Israeli strategy of use of force in limited conflict is examined. The paper explores the strategic foundations of Israeli behavior, using quantitative and qualitative data analytic approaches. The study argues that Israel has early on adopted a policy of excessive use of force in retaliation to (and sometime in anticipation of) hostile actions by the Arabs. This strategy is believed to have been extremely successful. In practice, its only key effect was to induce escalation. The implications of this strategy for Israel's national security and for regional stability are discussed.

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