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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 77 words || 
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1. Rengger, Nicholas. "The Limits of Politics or the Politics of Limits: Jean Bethke Eshltain's Ambiguous Augustinianism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p179644_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper would focus on the manner in which Elshtain's recent work seems to offer a rather different reading of politics from that disclosed in her earlier writing. I locate this in the context of the relationship - powerful but, I suggest, ambiguous - between her general ideas about politics and her interpretation of Augustine. I then offer some thoughts as to what is at stake in the ambiguity, for Elshtain herself, and for politics in general.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 71 pages || Words: 21832 words || 
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2. Ahram, Ariel. "Limited Wars and Limited States: The Devolution of Violence in Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p211683_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper accounts for the origins and persistence of different models of coercive military organizations among developing states. Using a case study of Indonesia, it argues that the experience of decolonization wars embedded a model of decentralized control over local militias, giving the state mediated and uncertain power over the application of violence in its territory. This model became path dependent as the state was able to stabilize its relationship with local violence wielders by increasing the coercive and fiscal power located at the center and isolating local actors from potentially competing sources of central patronage, allowing the state to become militia’s sole sponsor. This system, however, was only sustainable as long as the international environment remained benign, since the militias were still difficult to control and coordinate centrally. Indonesia’s democratic opening broke the isolation of militias from
alternative sources of patronage, leading to a break down in internal order, but as long the international system permits them, such weak states can remain brokers for local violence without outright collapse.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 19394 words || 
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3. Maoz, Zeev. "The Unlimited Use of the Limited Use of Force: Israeli Strategy of Limited Warfare, 1949-2003" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73689_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Israeli strategy of use of force in limited conflict is examined. The paper explores the strategic foundations of Israeli behavior, using quantitative and qualitative data analytic approaches. The study argues that Israel has early on adopted a policy of excessive use of force in retaliation to (and sometime in anticipation of) hostile actions by the Arabs. This strategy is believed to have been extremely successful. In practice, its only key effect was to induce escalation. The implications of this strategy for Israel's national security and for regional stability are discussed.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 42 pages || Words: 14482 words || 
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4. Heckel, Heather. "Transnational Activism for children: The limited and limiting role of the US in the case of child soldiers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p74172_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The past twenty-five years have seen a rapid and broad proliferation of transnational advocacy around a myriad of issues including environmental protection, landmines, women’s rights and human rights. While activists have been engaged in seeking new global standards, the United States has increasingly resisted these standards including the Child Rights Convention, the International Criminal Court, the Kyoto Protocol and the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. US opposition has occurred for a variety of reasons including concerns over encroachment on US sovereignty, efficiency, accountability and domestic elections.

This paper utilizes one case, the issue of child soldiers, to evaluate the roles and impact of activists and the US government during the process of establishing a human rights standard. To assess the impact of the US on the transnational campaign against the use of child soldiers, this study briefly examines the emergence of the issue on the international ‘agenda’ and the negotiation process for a standard within the United Nations. First, I argue that transnational activists were responsible for the emergence of a campaign on child soldiers and that the US played no relevant role during this stage. However, the US role dramatically increased when the UN began to address the issue in 1984. At that time, the political opportunity structure of UN negotiations ensured that the US position highly influenced and limited the final outcome.

This brief study illustrates the complexity of international relations debates over power and influence. While a narrow view of the case shows the US limiting the influence of transnational activists, a more detailed analysis reveals the critical roles of activists who placed the issue on the international agenda in spite of limited US interest. Additionally, an historical analysis also reveals areas where transnational activists exerted significant influence outside of arenas dominated by the US - such as within UN offices and in regional conferences. Ultimately, one can conclude that transnational activism has diverse impact, but when facing the hegemon its impact was curtailed.

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