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2014 - AAAL Annual Conference Words: 50 words || 
1. Lau, Sunny Man Chu. "Hybrid literacy practices: Enhancing students’ bi-literacy skills through a collaborative critical literacy project" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAAL Annual Conference, Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, OR, Mar 22, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This presentation reports on some preliminary findings of a year-long university-school research project on the collaboration of a French L2 and English Language Arts teacher in the promotion of cross language- and content-based goals through a range of hybrid literacy and experiential learning activities on the issue of children’s rights.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 649 words || 
2. Kahando, Sarah. "Adult literacy in South Sudan: Exploring new literacy approaches in developing literacy programs in fragile contexts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract:
This article is based on an ongoing research and reflections drawn on the practitioner’s experience on implementing a literacy program in South Sudan. Current perceptions of literacy need to be understood within the environment in which it occurs in order to draw on its relevance and implication in the society. Literature also observes that the importance and influences of literacy are dependent on the specificity of social and historical context that gives literacy its meaning (Graff 2007). The article thus begins by drawing on the historical understanding and program implementation of literacy in South Sudan. The article continues to relate the research findings based on documented literature, observations and discussions based on implemented programs and explore how these contributes towards the perception of the adults on what constitutes a quality literacy program. The article then proposes some hypothesis on the minimum factors that that needs to be in place to implement literacy programs using new approaches.

Descriptors: Education, literacy identities, leadership roles, literacy and training, literacy and schooling

Objectives or purposes of the study
This article explores the question: What is the potential of using New Literacy Study approach to implement literacy in South Sudan?
The main objective of this research study is to explore existing research and practice and highlight minimum factors required in introducing the new literacy study approaches to implementing literacy programs.

Thesis statement

In the last few decades, worldwide attention to the Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) has led to the increased attention on literacy. The commitment to reduce adult illiteracy by 50% (EFA Dakar framework for action, 2000) has driven governments and institutions exerting different efforts towards fulfilling this commitment. Research and literature on the nature of literacy has grown to include the varied concepts of literacy and its purposes across disciplines. We see more and more interdisciplinary studies on literacy theories and issues discussed, with the economist, anthropologist,. ( Lankshear,1999., Basu, Maddox & Robinson-Pant, 2008., historians (Graff H. , 2007, (Limage, 2005, Wagner 1999), and others. Emotive words such as ‘essential, fundamental, prerequisite, heart of learning have been used to appeal to different audiences as well as place its locus within the discourse of empowerment, poverty reduction, development and democracy. (McCaffery, J., Merrifield, J., & Millican, J., 2007, p. 7). However, the task to reduce illiteracy by 50% continues to be elusive for many countries. Has research and the drive to meet the target missed the mark?

Perspective (s) or theoretical/conceptual framework
The paper ‘s review of literature begins by drawing on some of the agendas of historical studies as underpinned by Graff 2007and ties this with the new conceptualizations on literacy approaches and agendas. We then draw on the literature to hypothesize the implications of these past experiences to literacy and learning. The goal is to set a basis from which we begin to analyze current social issues associated with literacy.

Modes of inquiry, methods and data source
We began with a historical literature search for books and journal articles that addressed literacy in South Sudan, current practices and in particular reports, teachers’ reflection notes and discussions from learners in one program. A summary on the review is drawn and presented in a table format and analyzed.
Key findings and conclusion
The preliminary finding of the research shows that the complexity of understanding literacy in South Sudan is historically grounded especially among the older generation but also influenced by external factors. Further, the discourse in South Sudan on literacy is largely centered and framed within the larger discourse of development, poverty reduction and to a large extent ignores the social cultural issues in South Sudan that could be relevant in shaping literacy programs. Adults seem to equate literacy to the number of schooling years one attended and on the mechanical skills of reading and writing. New ways of doing things are highly contested at all levels and needs to be negotiated.

2016 - LRA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Dobbs, Christina., Ippolito, Jacy. and Charner-Laird, Megin. "Is this literacy?: Defining and redefining literacy in a disciplinary literacy professional development initiative" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA Annual Conference, OMNI Nashville, Nashville, Tennessee, Nov 29, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2015 - 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 702 words || 
4. Barakat, Bilal. "Raising adult literacy without raising the literacy of adults? A cross-national analysis of literacy trends from a cohort perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 59th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Washington Hilton Hotel, Washington D.C., Mar 08, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is a potential disconnect between adult literacy initiatives, campaigns, and programmes on the one hand, and the indicators typically employed to frame global targets and measure their progress. While much of the policy discourse on raising adult literacy is framed in terms of turning illiterate adults into literate adults, the main international indicator, the overall adult literacy rate, is influenced not just by such individual transitions from illiteracy to literacy, but also, or even mainly, by the process of cohort replacement: young, possible better educated, individuals cross into the adult age bracket, while older individuals depart. This leads to an improvement in the adult literacy rate that is perfectly real, but without necessarily benefitting any individual illiterate adult.

Differential mortality and migration may further affect the composition of the adult population in ways that affect the adult literacy rate. This would be the case if literates and illiterates are subject to different risks of dying in a given time period, or to different rates of migration. Neither of these are implausible, indeed assumed benefits to health are one of the rationales for investing in adult literacy in the first place. As a result, the trajectory of adult literacy differs substantially depending on whether we look at a fixe aged group in cross-section or at fixed cohorts over age. Analysing literacy trends along cohort lines therefore provides an important complemententary perspective if we seek to understand changes in adult literacy and their possible causes.

The present study, a background paper for the upcoming 2015 Global Monitoring Report, performs an analysis along these lines. I compare fixed-age cross-sectional and fixed-cohort longitudinal adult literacy rates; for the latter, I estimates bounds on the distorting effect of differential mortality and migration. HIV/AIDS mortality is treated separately, because the direction of the education gradient may be less consistent in this context.
In addition, a decomposition is performed to asses the contributions to the changing cross-sectional adult literacy rate of literacy conditional on school attainment on the one hand, and changing educational attainment composition on the other. For the subset of countries where literacy did not change substantially over adult ages, this observation is exploited to reconstruct the literacy outcomes among school graduates over time. Finally, the role of adult literacy programmes is investigated, as is the issue of partial vs full literacy.

This study uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on the education and measured (rather than self-reported) literacy status of women aged 20 to 49 for 30 countries. An additional perspective on the literacy of adult males, who are less well covered in DHS, is provided based on census data for five of the ten countries with the largest absolute numbers of illiterates, namely Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Egypt. Unfortunately, these data only contain self-reported literacy.

Despite its limitations, its results provide an important, nuanced perspective on efforts to improve adult literacy in many countries. In particular, it shows that observed gains in the adult literacy rate overstate the degree to which individual women have become literate. In some countries there are, however, changes in literacy along cohort lines, both upwards and downwards, that cannot be easily attributed to selective migration or mortality and may, therefore, represent ‘true’ gains or losses in individual literacy. Nepal is found to appear as a particularly strong outlier in terms of improvements in literacy at adult ages that cannot be accounted for by any of the other modelled effects, and that do not merely reflect a shift from partial to full literacy. At the present level of analysis, there is no evidence, unfortunately, that such gains can be related to reported participation in adult literacy programmes. Indeed, a tentative conclusion is that some past exposure to primary schooling is necessary to derive sustainable benefit from them. If corroborated, this would have important implications for policy, in terms of helping the most disadvantaged who never received any schooling. For countries in which literacy gains at adult ages were found to be marginal, consistent time series of youth literacy rates can be reconstructed from current cross-sectional data. Notably, those results suggest that the literacy outcomes of primary schooling in general were not "diluted" at times of rapid expansion of school participation.

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