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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 492 words || 
1. Escobar, Kelly. and Brand, Rebecca. "Individual Differences in Self-Locomotion and Stranger Anxiety: Are They Related?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: During the first year, human infants typically achieve two major milestones: self-locomotion (specifically, crawling) and attachment to caregivers with a coinciding fear of strangers. In fact, the average age for each of these developments is about 7-8 months of age (Adolph & Berger, 2006; Friedman, 1961; Gesell, 1928). Evolution would likely have favored a link between these two systems: as children become more mobile, it would serve them to be more aware of their surroundings and to assume more responsibility for keeping themselves among safe, familiar caregivers. Indeed, infants’ fearful reactions toward strangers are attenuated when they are near a familiar caregiver, and infants emit behaviors (eye gaze, vocal signaling, and eventually crawling or walking) that help establish and maintain contact with the caregiver (Bretherton, 1992; Spelke, Zelazo, Kagen, & Kotelchuck, 1973). However, the relative timing of these two developments has not, to our knowledge, been examined. Our hypothesis was that, at the level of individual children, crawling and stranger anxiety would emerge in close temporal relationship with one another. Further, we examined whether one skill reliably preceded the other. One possibility was that, as crawling developed, this would inspire infants to notice and become fearful of unfamiliar others (crawling first); another possibility was that once infants became fearful of strangers, this would encourage the development of locomotor skills to stay close to the familiar caregivers (stranger anxiety first).
A sample of 138 parents with infants between the ages of 6 and 12 month filled out surveys online, reporting on infants’ motor development (Frankel, Campos, & Anderson, 2005), and stranger anxiety (the Fear subscale of the IBQ-R, Garstein & Rothbart, 2003). Key variables here were hands-and-knees crawling and stranger anxiety (specifically, “When introduced to an unfamiliar adult, how often did the baby refuse to go to the unfamiliar person?”). Parents were asked to recall the approximate age when the behavior started. Age was reported as early- (5th), mid- (15th), or late- (25th) of a given month. Seventy-five infants had begun hands-and-knees crawling (M = 224 days; SD = 46); 83 had experienced stranger anxiety (M = 198 days; SD = 65); 53 had reached both milestones.
Age of hands-and-knees crawling onset and age of stranger anxiety onset were not significantly associated r(53) = .12, p = .39. However, age of hands-and-knees crawling onset (M = 230.65 days, SD = 46.81) was marginally later than age of stranger anxiety onset (M = 212.20 days, SD = 69.09 days), t(52) =1.71, p = .09. Further, a sign test indicated that stranger anxiety was more likely than chance to occur before hands-and-knees crawling, Z = -3.25, p = .001. In fact, stranger anxiety occurred earlier than hands-and-knees crawling for 70% of infants – on average, about three weeks earlier. Although the sample size here is small, this is the first evidence that infants’ developing wariness of strangers precedes and possibly encourages their development of locomotion.

2009 - The Mathematical Association of America MathFest Words: 111 words || 
2. Ehlers, Kurt. "Micro-locomotion: squirmers, rowers, spinners, and singers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Mathematical Association of America MathFest, Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, OR, Aug 06, 2009 <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Microorganisms live in an Aristotelian world dominated by viscosity where inertia plays absolutely no role. After a brief review of known mechanisms for bacterial self-propulsion, I will introduce a new model for the self-propulsion of certain strains of Synecococcus (blue-green algae) based on acoustic streaming (AS). These one-cell organisms swim at 10-20 diameters per second without flagella or visible changes in shape. Biologists have discovered that some cells are able to generate high frequency small amplitude surface acoustic waves (SAW's) on their outer membrane using coupled molecular motors. Could traveling SAW's generating AS be the mechanism for Synechococcus self-propulsion? Do Synechococcus "sing" themselves along? I will present theoretical and experimental evidence.

2011 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 454 words || 
3. Vaught, Jeannette. "The Inappropriate Lens: Muybridge’s Human Subjects of Animal Locomotion" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Baltimore, Baltimore, MD, <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Eadweard Muybridge’s groundbreaking images of Leland Stanford’s racehorses
brought him instant recognition from the burgeoning European and American scientific
communities in the early 1870s. However, in the decade following his enormous success,
he struggled to fit into those increasingly institution-centered and professionalized
communities. By 1884, the only institution willing to even nominally support his work
was the newly formed Veterinary School at the University of Pennsylvania. In this paper,
I take Muybridge’s marginalization from fin-de-siècle “professional” science as a starting
point in order to understand how he used the Veterinary School as a base for both human
and animal research, and how his blurring of animal and human sciences ran counter to
their division into the separate fields from which Muybridge himself was excluded.
My approach to this topic is prismatic: first, if we imagine that Muybridge directed
the lenses of his image-making technologies towards human and animal subjects equally,
then how does his conflation of all bodies with the “animal” interface with his, and our,
understanding of the scientific-technological apparatus? Or, if we consider his treatment
of animals and humans as not “equal” but instead “concurrent,” what nuances must we
account for in his linking of the human, the animal, and the mechanical? Furthermore,
how did Muybridge’s fluid understanding of “science” justify this link, and how was his
linkage inverted by his opponents in the rapidly “hardening” sciences to justify their
separation of human and animal study?

These questions are of course complicated by how Muybridge’s images were
presented. The images-in-motion produced during his association with UP (1884-1893)
were extraordinarily numerous (over 100,000 between 1884 and 1886 alone), and many
depicted both male and female nudes alongside “exotic” and “wild” animals. The
publication of these images under the title Animal Locomotion was supplemented with
public lectures, most famously at the World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893, where the
moving images were projected onto large screens for an entire audience – a clear
forerunner to the motion picture. Mixed audiences would view, for instance, the
biomechanical properties of a buffalo or giraffe, to be followed by the biomechanical
properties of a nude adult woman descending a flight of stairs, two nude adult men
wrestling, or, most arrestingly, the biomechanical properties of nude adults and children
of both sexes suffering from seizures, deformities, amputations, and mental anguish. It is
my contention that the presence of animals, the subsuming of human images under the
title of “Animal Locomotion” (compounded by the name of his image-making
technology, the “zoopraxiscope”), and the association of this work with a veterinary
school make possible this public display of “inappropriate” images. Certainly,
Muybridge’s lectures, though couched in scientific terms, must have been quite titillating,
undoubtedly contributing to his continued ostracism. Muybridge’s acumen for highlighting the link between human, animal, and machine ironically helped cement the “scientific” divisions between them, and further necessitated the severing of the
scientized body from the public’s view and into the privacy of the laboratory.

2015 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Words: 211 words || 
4. O'Connell Davidson, Julia. "Beyond Trafficking: People, Place and the Right of Locomotion" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, Apr 01, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Formal research paper presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: ‘Human trafficking’ is widely compared to the transatlantic slave trade, an association that is used to legitimate the exercise of state power to prevent people from moving from place to place. The comparison glosses over the fact that Africans transported to the New World as chattel slaves had no desire to move there - it required overwhelming physical force to move them. Those who today are described as Victims of Trafficking almost invariably wanted to move, evidenced, among other things, by the fact they have been willing to indebt themselves to travel. This paper argues that historical parallels can more usefully be drawn between aspects of contemporary migration and the movement of people who escaped from transatlantic slavery. The continuities arise from the correspondence between structures and mechanisms set in place by slave states historically and those employed by states today to control and manage the mobility of groups deemed to be outsiders and subpersons. The legal edifice that today controls mobility was no more designed to protect human rights, and is no more compatible with that ambition, than was that constructed by colonial and slave states historically. These continuities draw attention to the continuing relevance of demands articulated by fugitive slaves in the nineteenth century for a ‘right of locomotion’.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 501 words || 
5. Mullally, Sinead. "Locomotion as a correlate of boundary extension in 9 month old infants" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2018-03-19 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Nine months of age has been consistently described by memory theorists as a critical transitional age whereby infant memory appears to undergo a radical development (for review see Mullally and Maguire, 2014). The dominant view is that it is approximately this age when an early developing hippocampal-independent memory system is supplanted by a late developing hippocampal-dependent memory system (e.g. Schacter and Moscovitch, 1984; Richmond and Nelson, 2007). Implicit in such models is the idea that this change is driven by time-dependent structural developments occurring within the hippocampus. Alternatively, it is plausible that these mnemonic developments are driven by functional changes co-occurring in the infants’ life, such as the onset of independent locomotion; a development which could potentially alter both the structure and function of the hippocampus. Tentative evidence in favour of this bidirectional account comes from the observation that 9-month-old infants who are able to crawl appear to be more capable of using their memory flexibly than infants who are not yet crawling (Herbert et al., 2007). Moreover, in a recent review, Anderson and colleagues proposed that rather than the onset of independent locomotion being a mere maturational antecedent to the wide range of psychological functions that undergo rapid development following its attainment (e.g. spatial cognition and memory), independent locomotion may in fact play a causal role in the genesis of these functions (Anderson et al., 2013).

Elucidating the relationship between the functional and structural changes that occur throughout development is of obvious importance. However, gaining a better understanding of the specific relationship between the onset of independent locomotion (which presumably leads to the acquisition of a richer spatial representation of one’s environment), episodic memory development, and hippocampal maturation could also enhance our basic understanding of the role played by the hippocampus in episodic memory, and critically, provide leverage into the relationship between the disparate cognitive functions (such as episodic memory, scene construction, and spatial navigation) that appear to co-depend upon this neural structure (for review see Mullally and Maguire, 2013). Following on from the work of Herbert et al., (2007), we recruited two groups of healthy 9-month-old infants (a crawling and a non-crawling group) and compared their performance on a variety of hippocampal-dependent memory paradigms that have previously been successfully utilised in this age-group (e.g. Richmond and Nelson, 2009; Barr et al., 2003). In addition, given the recent observation that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and profound amnesia show attenuated levels of Boundary Extensions (a cognitive illusion whereby healthy participants appear to perceive more of a visual scene than is presented to them) relative to healthy controls (Mullally et al., 2012), we also sought to explore whether the onset of independent locomotion impacted on the levels of Boundary Extension displayed by these infants. In this way, the study aimed to firstly explore the functional significance of independent locomotion on a range of hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions and secondly, to consider whether two supposedly key hippocampal-dependent processes, episodic memory and scene construction, are similarly influenced by the onset of independent locomotion.

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