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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 29 pages || Words: 9367 words || 
1. Closs, Angharad. "'7 Million Londoners; One London': National and Urban Ideas of Community in the Aftermath of the 7th July Bombings in London" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The political responses to the bombings in London on the 7th of July 2005, the subsequent “failed” bombings on the 21st of July, and the shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes by anti-terrorist officers on the 22nd of July, show us that the idea of a community in unity continues to be the overwhelmingly dominant model we have available for how we might organise political communities. This is the idea that a community must be formed around the foundational principle of unity, representing a shared essence that goes beyond people’s membership in a society or state. It is the image of community that underpins nationalist discourses, the kind that were circulating at full speed in the aftermath of the London bombings. This paper will explore the idea of a community in unity through the case of political responses to the London bombings. In doing so, it will seek to reveal the tremendous capacity of this idea in steering out ability to conceive of possible alternatives. It will also offer a contribution to studies in international political theory that are specifically interested in exploring what might be involved in the task of forming different ideas of community, and what might be done to avoid reproducing the familiar impasses.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 85 words || 
2. Hohl, Katrin., Stanko, Betsy. and Newburn, Tim. "How the 2011 London Disorder Cemented Londoners' Views of the Police" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper focuses on the effect of the riots on Londoners' trust in the police, perception of disorder and attitudes towards sentencing. It draws on data from the METPAS, a continuous population representative survey of Londoners. The survey was in the field during the riots, and in the weeks following and leading up to them. The results from the survey confirm findings from prior research that identifies procedural justice as a central factor in public trust in the police and perceived legitimacy of police authority.

2014 - ISME Words: 400 words || 
3. Becko, Lawrence. and Schumacher, Amy. "The Wired4Music Manifesto: an instrument for shaping cultural education policy in London, produced by young musical Londoners themselves" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISME, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil, Jul 20, 2014 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Spoken Paper (Abstract)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper describes the underlying principles and process which led to the development of the Wired4Music Manifesto, an instrument for shaping cultural education policy in London, produced by young musical Londoners themselves.

Following the principles for democratic participation of children and young people pioneered by Roger Hart for the UN in 1992, the paper discusses the impact musical young people can have on shaping policy directly by designing a youth-led programme of activity based on a common interest in music. Music education has long embraced the participatory potential of music-making activity, yet youth voice and advocacy have to a large extent been absent from cultural policy-making. The paper poses the central tenet that if we are designing music programmes and policy aimed at young people, we should be consulting them and inviting them to shape the work not only on the ground but at the highest level.

The methodology has been developed with the active participation of members of Wired4Music, a youth council comprised of musical young people from across London’s 32 boroughs. The council is open to all Londoners aged 16-25 with musical interests. It was set up in 2009 by the music education charity Sound Connections and in 2013 developed a manifesto aimed at bridging the divide between policy-makers and their intended beneficiaries, young people.

Through focus groups, meetings and seminars, young participants worked alongside experts from music education, media and campaigning, producing a multi-theme manifesto to start a conversation with decision-makers across a variety of platforms, with the aim of creating tangible change in each thematic area. The Wired4Music manifesto brings young people’s voices to the heart of discussions around cultural decision-making and gives a platform for direct conversations with policy makers, venues, funding bodies and educational institutions.

The paper will argue that the process of engaging young people in creating the campaign can be as transformational as the changes which may ultimately arise from the manifesto itself, as young people learn to engage with cultural policy in a way that was not possible before. These skills prove to be highly transferable, empowering active citizenship as well as an increased awareness of the context of their own music-making. Ultimately it will be argued that music educators could draw on this unique model to co-create a more politicised and participatory pedagogy alongside their young people, harnessing music as a vehicle for local and global citizenship and policy change.

2006 - American Studies Association Words: 224 words || 
4. Bruni, John. "Speaking Out of Place: Animal Languages and Evolution in Jack London’s Fiction" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: My paper examines how Jack London’s The Call of the Wild (1903) and White Fang (1906) challenge monolithic, human-centered ideas of race and gender. As I assert, London argues that evolution leads to biological kinship between animals and humans. I pay particular notice to the ways that both novels depict the popularized “wild frontier” as a projection of white, masculine fantasies about dominance and control. My discussion then focuses on London’s proposal that national ideals of “whiteness” and masculinity and femininity must be tested against the dictates of a natural/national history. As a result we can read the violent endings of both novels as attempts to reconcile the conflicting themes of biological kinship and imperialism. Thus, as I observe, these novels reflect dominant cultural attitudes, such as imperialist fantasies about progress, that inform an early-twentieth-century reading of evolution. Yet I do suggest that London’s narratives provide possibilities for “rewriting” animal languages in a way that might allow for a reexamination of evolutionary theory on non-human agents. I look at these possibilities in the context of how second-order systems theory (described by Cary Wolfe as the study of “observing observation” ) allows us to explore the instability of language and meaning, shedding new light on the production of scientific knowledge about the evolutionary development of animals and humans.

2007 - The American Studies Association Words: 480 words || 
5. Masters, Joshua. "The Iowa Indians Meet Tom Thumb in London: George Catlin’s European Exhibitions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The American Studies Association, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Oct 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: I recently published an article on George Catlin’s seven-year project in the western territories to collect, classify, and represent its “vanishing” peoples in American Studies (summer 2005). I have now begun work that examines Catlin’s efforts to commodify and objectify his experiences in the West in the cultural markets of Europe, where the realities of fickle popular tastes and erratic profit margins would eventually lead Catlin to borrow from the sideshow model of display made so successful by his contemporary P.T. Barnum. My work fits nicely with this year’s focus on “Transhemispheric Visions and Community Connections,” in that my paper will focus exclusively on Catlin’s exhibition of fourteen Iowa Indians in his traveling museum in 1844—he toured Europe with the Iowas through the summer of 1845—particularly his efforts to market and commodify the Iowa as an exemplum of American identity destined to “vanish.”

As a collector and exhibitor of Native American culture, Catlin walked a fine line between aesthetic, ethical, and entrepreneurial values, and nowhere is this better illustrated than in his association with Iowas, who were originally imported by P.T. Barnum and then managed by Catlin. After an unsuccessful run with a somewhat unruly group of Ojibwa Indians the year before, with the Iowas Catlin was much more calculating in crafting an exhibition that catered to white spectators’ expectations and desires, and his use of advertisements, newspaper reports, and marketing techniques is a study in proto-“Wild West” showmanship.

This past summer I had a research grant to study Catlin’s advertising strategies in London at the British Library’s Periodical and Newspaper library, and I focused on approximately fifteen London dailies and weeklies published over a two month period in the summer of 1844. Catlin’s travelogue, Notes on Eight Years Travels and Residence in Europe, describes two particularly public exhibitions of the Iowas in London, the first at the Lord's Cricket Grounds for one week, and the second at Vauxhall Gardens for two weeks. However, he makes little mention of the hundreds of advertisements I discovered he placed during this period, nor does he discuss his complex relationship with the media (the fact that different “reporters” wrote nearly identical stories about the exhibitions suggests that Catlin was one of the first Americans to master the art of the “press release”). Although I am still in the process of analyzing the raw data I accumulated, I made some startling and original discoveries. For instance, P.T. Barnum's Tom Thumb, who was also making the London rounds that same summer, actually made an appearance with Catlin's Iowas at Vauxhall, in the debut of his miniature carriage, purported to be the smallest ever built. This fact about Catlin was until now unknown, and part of my paper will investigate Catlin's partnership with Barnum and his use of a tiny white male in tandem with his "wild" Indians, a classic pairing of the civil and the savage.

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