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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 26 pages || Words: 8111 words || 
1. Buhaug, Halvard. "Dude, Where's My Conflict? LSG, Relative Strength, and the Location of Civil War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Kenneth Boulding?s (1962) notion of a loss-of-strength gradient (LSG) has been successfully applied to explain the military reach of states. The capability of a country (a.k.a. its national strength) is largest at its home base and declines as the nation moves away. Capable states are relatively less impeded by distance and can therefore influence more distant regions. Given armed conflict, battles are expected to occur in areas where the projected powers of the antagonists are comparable. When the aggressor?s projected power is greater than the national strength of the defender, the latter side should give in without violence. This paper is a first attempt to apply Boulding?s theory of international interactions to the study of civil war. Using a variety of measures of national strength (economic, institutional, demographic, and ethno-political indicators) and data on the sub-national location of battle zones this paper tests empirically one corollary of the LSG hypothesis; whether civil wars in general locate further away from the center of the state in more powerful regimes.

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