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2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 419 words || 
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1. Schutz, Anton. and Harste, Gorm. "The Habermas-Luhmann Debate: Luhmann’s Impact on the Social Sciences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p645907_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the 1971 published collection/documentation of a debate that was going to last, two sociologists engage in a rare double act of a lively mutual intelligence coupled to inexorable theoretical intransigency. The volume (Jürgen Habermas, Niklas Luhmann, Theorie der Gesellschaft oder Sozialtechnologie – Was leistet die Systemforschung?, Frankfurt [Suhrkamp] 1971), not translated into English to this day, has been one of the best selling books of the Social Sciences ever published in any country. It stages, on the one hand, German sociologist and philosopher Jürgen Habermas, speaking as the representative of the post WWII Frankfurt school – a 1929-created foundation of militant socialist philosopher-sociologists – who reveals unambiguously marxist leanings in a tone of careful yet critical radicalism, stressing the normative and politico-moral obligations that, so he claimed, must constrain every adept of the social sciences eager not to fall into the trap of mere de-politicized Sozialtechnologie and, on the other hand, Niklas Luhmann, a German lawyer and sociologist who studied in the US with Talcott Parsons, ever kept a definite distance to the Frankfurt “crits” (even and especially in the time in which he was teaching there), and has come up with a number of fundamentally innovative re-conceptions of the agenda – an originally rather conservative agenda, as he knows well enough – that inspires what people used to refer to as the “theory of systems” during the earlier half of the 20th century.

Throughout the 1960s, times of an intensely politicized student movement, Habermas tries to provide the new German Bundesrepublik with an appropriately responsible and responsive set of structures of political hermeneutics and behaviour – what one would call, today, a code of conduct (mainly structures which, overall, appeared capable to lead the German Bundesrepublik into what Habermas felt were politically safe, antifascist waters). At the same time, Luhmann, whose conception of society was never tempted by marxism even if it directly depended from the understanding of complexity, suggested views that were at once de-idealizing and de-politicizing. Many German intellectuals of the time were alarmed by so much independence of mind and “anti-cyclical” mind-set. Habermas, taking on several elements of Luhmann’s newly reconceived theory, suspects Luhmann of favouring a pragmatic or “technological” understanding of society, while Luhmann tries to offer an account of diverse aspects of modern society in terms of functionally differentiated systems, all of which he considers as sharing society’s life, while showing that none of them, least of all the political system, is any longer capable of durably controlling or governing the other ones.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Strauss, Nadine. "Trust and the Financial Market in Light of Habermas and Luhmann: A Research Agenda for Communication Science" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1102851_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Driven by a lack of research on financial communication, this paper aims at providing a theoretical framework on studying trust in the financial market from a communication science perspective. It is argued that the economic understanding of trust does not comply with the sociological definition of trust based on Luhmann and that recent developments on the financial markets suggest a move towards a sociological understanding of trust. Originating from Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action and Luhmann’s systems theory an inter-subjective and socio systemic theoretical framework is drawn, based on which a research agenda for communication science to study trust in financial actors, institutes, and the financial system emerges.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 7069 words || 
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3. Staubmann, Helmut. "Social Systems Theory and Emotions: A Comparison of Luhmann and Parsons" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p18614_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The blind spot of sociology in respect to emotions is not merely its lack of an account of emotions, but primarily its conception of emotions as something pre-social or pre-cultural and thus failing to recognize their genuinely social character. Expressed in the terminology of Niklas Luhmann, emotions are seen as part of the environment of social systems. What is ignored thereby are the affective processes and structures of social systems. The reason lies in an essentialist definition of sociology and the basic concepts derived therefrom. In the case of Luhmann, it is the merging of the elementary social operation communication with meaning by definition and subsequently of social structure with semantics. The precondition of the ability to see emotions as social phenomena lies in a conceptual differentiation, demonstrated via the example of Parsons’ functional definition of the social. Drawing on Parsons’ theory, it is argued – thoroughly in accordance with the concept of autopoiesis so central for Luhmann – to conceive of affectivity as a structurally independent component of communication/action.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 12212 words || 
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4. Leydesdorff, Loet. "Anticipation and Communication in Communication Systems: Towards a Model for Luhmann's Sociological Theory of Communication" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112838_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A system which contains a model of itself can function in an anticipatory mode. Anticipatory systems can be simulated. The social system can be expected to contain two anticipatory mechanisms: (1) meaning is provided with hindsight, i.e., with a time step difference from the reflected operation; (2) the differentiation in the social system generates an asynchronicity (Ät) between the operation of its subsystems. The differentiation allows for another anticipatory mechanism: the codes of the different subsystems provide them with representations of each other. When the two anticipatory mechanisms are left free to operate on each other, a so-called “strongly anticipatory system” can be shaped as a resonance between the two degrees of freedom. While weak anticipatory systems contain a model of themselves as a prediction, a strong anticipatory system can also construct its next stage. The social system then generates endogenously mechanisms for its renewal. For example, the systems of reference can be redefined in a technological evolution of the social system. The knowledge base of this system or its subsystems (e.g., the economy) can become globalized.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 234 words || 
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5. Guibentif, Pierre. "Evolution of Theory: The Production of Luhmann’s Work in a Comparative Approach" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p177329_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Luhmann’s work impresses not only by its comprehensiveness, but also by its dynamics and inventiveness. So there are strong scientific and pedagogical reasons to carefully analyse, beyond the contents, the way it has been produced. This is the aim of this paper, based on a comparison between Luhmann and other leading authors in the social theory of law. Luhmann himself supplies several keys to his working procedures (clear structure of the whole work; comments on his Zettelkästen; relevant elements in his systems theory such as their chapters on science as social system, evolution and so on). What these procedures perform is a remarkable distance, compared with other authors, between the theoretical work and its environment (research results, academic debates, historical circumstances, personal experiences). Even if this environment is far from being ignored. A more tricky issue is the relationship, within his theoretical “workshop”, between the Zettelkästen and his papers, his writings in the narrow sense of the word. A crucial issue since we meet here the very process of Luhmann’s writing, i. e. thinking. Luhmann’s theory offers suggestive concepts for tackling this question, such as the distinction between conscience and communication and the concept of structural coupling. This is however, the point where there might be a special worth in using also concepts of other authors. No wonder: if they have one thing in common with Luhmann, it is that they are all writers.

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