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2009 - 33rd Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 202 words || 
1. Hicks, Keisha. "The Multifarious Jihads of Malcolm X: From Malcolm Little to El Hajj Malik El Shabazz" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 33rd Annual National Council for Black Studies, Renaissance Atlanta Hotel Downtown, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Panelist Abstract
Abstract: Malcolm X remains to be one of the most charismatic leaders to emerge from the Civil Rights Movement era. According to the Islam religion the term jihad is defined as a struggle in the way of Allah. In modern western vernacular the term is synonymous with armed aggression against the United States especially when jihad is defined by the American mainstream media and the US government. By using the five major forms of jihad (1) jihad bil nafs or jihad of the soul including (al-jihad al-akbar) (2) jihad bil lisan or jihad of the tongue, (3) jihad bil qalam/ilm or jihad by the pen or knowledge (4) jihad bil yad or jihad by the hand, (5) jihad bis saif or jihad by the sword including (al-jihad al-asghar) or armed struggle as recognized in orthodox Islam. In this study I will examine the life of Malcolm X by using his political writings and speeches. The objective is to determine how much Islam influenced the politics of Malcolm X over time. In order to do this I will concern myself with using the five forms of jihad as a critical lens for a neoteric analysis of the political speeches and writings of Malcolm X.

2013 - 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 213 words || 
2. Tkweme, W.S.. "Listening to Malcolm: Malcolm X and the Traditions of Black Humor" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 37th Annual National Council for Black Studies, The Westin Hotel - Downtown, Indianapolis, ID, Mar 13, 2013 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Individual Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Malcolm X remains an entirely singular figure in black and U.S. history, an eternal icon whose valences are multiple and impressive: as entertaining speaker, as hero, as symbol of resistance, redemption, studiousness, as avatar of identity, devotion, and consciousness, not to mention his role in the spread of Islam among the black people of the United States. This paper considers one of the lesser noted of this icon’s many strengths: his effective deployment of humor in his public remarks, particularly his oratory. Even though Malcolm X is an emblem of seriousness, of commitment and true dedication, humor is a significant element of his presentation, displayed through a variety of techniques worthy of our attention. Though his humor has been underrated, Malcolm X could not be called properly a humorist, for that designates one who is primarily an entertainer, whose goal is to please audiences seeking (and generally paying) to be amused. He had a far larger mission than merely to rock the crowd and amuse them. A December 1964 OAAU meeting during which comic Dick Gregory visits the stage provides an opportunity to see this clearly. The paper concludes by considering the relationship between Malcolm’s uses of humor and that of the Black Power movement, and its legacy in African American discourse.

2012 - 36th Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 471 words || 
3. Birthwright, Eldon. "“’Frank and Open as 12’clock noon’”: Malcolm Writing Malcolm." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 36th Annual National Council for Black Studies, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Mar 07, 2012 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Individual Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In his March 25, 1959 letter to the Hon. Elijah Mohammed, Malcolm X bares his soul to his spiritual leader – documenting his marital struggles, microcosmic of his larger struggles with women; his conflicted and conflicting sense of self; and his spiritual struggles as a teacher of the Word. In writing this letter, Malcolm, more than anything else, seems to be entering into a covenant with truth, as he is aware that by attempting to “write his problems away”, he is also creating a permanent record – documenting the inextricable link between human experience and human expression.

For Malcolm X, the act of writing was an integral part of the larger project of individual freedom.

This paper attempts to critically examine the ways in which Malcolm X, the quintessential race man, attempted to engage his inner struggles, his relationships with women, and his social insecurities, through the act of writing. The main focus of the paper will be his March 1959 letter to Elijah Mohammed, in which we see a vulnerable Malcolm displaying a vulnerability and emotional transparency antithetical to the ethic of machismo present in the Nation of Islam. Malcolm’s chronicling of his lived reality, therefore, should be seen as representing a modernist take on manhood.

Throughout human history there has often been a fear of the word, especially when the word documents our human vulnerabilities. Malcolm would have been aware that when one puts something on paper, in essence creating a permanent record, that record eventually has a claim on you. Malcolm however, instead of a fear of the word, is putting forward a “death to fear” by establishing a connection between writing and who he really is. Malcolm is pretty much aware that what is most personal is oftentimes most universal, and in writing and fashioning his own freedom, he was attempting to live from the inside out and tying his personal integrity in religious terms to his sexual, erotic, and gendered sense of self.

In examining the several interpenetrating levels of meaning present in this letter, one might even argue that Malcolm, in a round about way, was critiquing the Nation of Islam and its leader Elijah Mohammed. By 1959, historical records indicate that Malcolm, Louis X, et al., were aware of Elijah Mohammed’s sexual indiscretions, and perhaps Malcolm, in entering into a covenant with truth, was using his truth and his reality to indict the integrity of Elijah Mohammed.

In the final line of the letter, Malcolm states, “Whatever you may think of me, I do at least feel better now.” Malcolm here is perhaps indicating that on one level, he has confronted what he was experiencing; he has named his experience(s); and he is somewhat satisfied that he has been, in the words of Zora Neale Hurston, “frank and open as 12 O’clock noon.”

2010 - 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 3883 words || 
4. Smallwood, Andrew. "Malcolm X’s Leadership Ideology and the Politics of Economic Empowerment in the 1960s: A Critical Reassessment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the face of adversity African Americans have used different approaches to alleviate
the negative social conditions during various periods in history. Leading the way were prominent African Americans who received advanced education despite various difficulties in this process. These individuals served as advocates for voicing the concerns, hopes, and frustrations for many African Americans in the early 20th century to a wider audience. A key mechanism for improving opportunities for African Americans has been through educational advancement. In this paper, I will examine how Malcolm X (1925-1965) had written about and/or advanced the concept of economic advancement for African Americans. The purpose of this paper is to uncover the unique contributions of Malcom X as African-American leader who developed an ideology and praxis using his leadership and to educate and inform African Americans.The social, political, and economic forces contributing to poverty and overall marginality of under-represented people helped to shape the need for adults to seek education outside of a formal setting to effectively address their community needs. Issues have generally centered around human rights and a need for adults to either function in their jobs adequately or to be accepted as members of society.

2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 303 words || 
5. Benson II, Richard. "A pedagogy of freedom: The educational philosophy of Malcolm X" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The objective of this presentation is to discuss the impact of Malcolm X’s educational philosophy juxtaposed to the educational progression of African Americans that developed during the era of “Black Power” following his death in 1965. The influence of the Malcolm X interpretation of education provoked action to struggle for ‘Black Studies’ and called for a need to establish institutions in the traditions of self-reliance and self-determined beliefs that translated to nationalistic pride. Malcolm X’s social and political thought became the catalyst for later practitioners of social change who provoked the American social landscape to formulate the ‘Black Power’ era. A significant element of the Malcolm X idealism is found in the elevated 'consciousness' of Black students whose protest efforts demanded the deconstruction of psychologically oppressive curricula in post-secondary institutions. The resistance efforts of Black students at predominately white institutions effectuated change as well as the demand for the creation of educational institutions and student organizations that identified with and worked for the interests of Black people in the context of the larger American society. Black student organizations and educational institutions such as: the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, the Black Panther Party, and the US Organization, Malcolm X Liberation University and the Student Organization for Black Unity are but a few organizations and institutions which were erected in the tradition of a Malcolm X educational philosophy.

Moreover, this presentation also begs the question of, “How is Malcolm X relevant to today’s youth and society?” Not only does it behoove us as educators to ask this question, but such a query should provoke a sense of urgency in our work to make such a figure relevant for today’s youth. Hence, this presentation provides a critical educational conduit that highlights the relevance of Malcolm X for every generation.

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