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2016 - AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto Words: 245 words || 
1. Nagaike, Kazumi. "Male Desires and Hopes to “Become” Fudanshi (“rotten men”): Heterosexual Male Readings of Male-Male Romance Fiction" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The BL (Boys’ Love) genre, which features male-male romance narratives and eroticism mainly targeted at female readers, has been widely acknowledged, both in Japan and abroad, as a significant component of Japanese popular culture. Though previous BL studies have often concluded that BL works are mostly produced by and for women, as I have suggested elsewhere (Nagaike, 2015), in Japan there are also many male BL readers (termed fudanshi, or “rotten men”), including self-identified heterosexuals. This necessitates a recognition of the discursive queerness entailed in heterosexual male readings of male homosexual narratives such as BL. Based primarily on ethnographic research concerning Japanese heterosexual BL readers’ communities and communications, this paper attempts to unveil both the psychological orientation of fudanshi, as well as their physicality (e.g. genital-arousal, masturbation, physical relationship with others) in relation to the consumption of BL narratives. I will demonstrate a psychological (subconscious) male desire for self-feminization, aligned with a temptation felt by many men to subvert or negate the construction of a strong, masculine ego. An analysis of these fudanshi’s reading practices also contributes to the critical discussion concerning the ways in which such aspects of male physicality relate to the components of men’s “real” lives, as well as to prevalent social constructions of masculinity. Hence, how and why self-identified heterosexual male readers of BL subvert the established idealization of “successful masculine salaryman” (Dasgupta, 2013) should be analyzed as a means to encompass the individuality of desire within contemporary Japanese socio-cultural contexts.

2014 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 1449 words || 
2. Smart, Bobbi-Lee. "An Analysis of Male Exotic Dancers and Male Strip Clubs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, Oregon, Mar 27, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Formal research paper presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The location of male revues and strip clubs, the dancers' performances, and the types of audience interaction between male dancers and their customers, are closely tied to race and class. The purpose of this paper is to explain how race, class, and location intersect in male strip clubs and revue shows. Nagel (2003) explains that race, class, and sexuality are closely tied together in American society and that these ties lead to sexual divisions based on race and class. Fung (1991) explains that while the standard of male beauty is still White men, the Black male is reduced to his penis. He explains that Black men and women are seen as hypersexual, thus making them a sexual threat. The methods used to understand these relationships were participant observation and in depth qualitative interviews with current and former male exotic dancers. Results to come.

2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 6827 words || 
3. Carpenter, Laura. and Kettrey, Heather. "Missing Discourse of Male Desire? Sexuality Frames in News on Male Circumcision and Female Genital Cutting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 14, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper analyzes print news coverage of female genital cutting (FGC) and male circumcision (MC) in the United States, 1985-2006. Using a sample of 601 news items from four national and three regional newspapers and three national news magazines, we examine themes of sexual desire and pleasure that surround discussions of FGC and MC. Activists concerned with both issues frequently emphasize issues related to sexuality. However, in print news coverage, references to desire and pleasure are much more prevalent surrounding FGC than MC (though still relatively rare). Journalists routinely present FGC as negatively affecting female sexual pleasure but rarely mention MC’s relationship to pleasure; in doing so, they effectively engage in secondary claims-making on anti-FGC activists’ behalf while deflecting anti-MC activists’ concerns. This pattern stands in dramatic contrast to the dominant sexual script (the “missing discourse of desire”) privileging male pleasure and neglecting its female counterpart. These tendencies appear to stem from journalistic practices (especially the news values of drama and human interest); cultural understandings of gendered and raced sexuality (who is conceivable as a victim); and the intersections of gender, race, nationality, and sexuality in the popular (and journalistic) imagination.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document

2014 - 38th Annual NCBS National Conference Words: 207 words || 
4. Johnson, T.. "How Anti-Affirmative Action in California Underdeveloped Black Male Higher Education: The ONYX Black Male Collective As A Paradigmatic Response" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 38th Annual NCBS National Conference, Miami Marriott Dadeland Hotel, Miami, Florida, Mar 05, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Individual Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Black male student population at Fresno State University has been declining dramatically over the years in regard to retention and graduation rates. Among many issues, Black males lack a safe space to articulate their concerns. Distrusting of the institution, the administration, and most of its representatives, the task of redeeming their potential is crucially necessary. Although Black female students, too, have a list of barriers that challenge their progress, Black faculty and staff have rallied to produce options that Black female students actively take advantage of, allowing them to graduate in more secure numbers. Black males, on the other hand, remain largely ignored (aside from campus athletes).

In response, Africana Studies has developed a response that tracked Black male reflections about their academic experience at Fresno State for six months, crafted a specific program tailored to their declared needs, and addressed them directly. Independent funding, state support, and strategic political relationships is helping to establish the ONYX Black Male Collective (a quasi-independent organization) that is both supported and attacked by campus departments and individual faculty/staff for varied reasons. Despite this, the organization and the process of designing it is paradigmatic of the necessary steps that must be taken to support Black male access to educational opportunity.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
5. Shenouda, Christine. and Danovitch, Judith. "Is a Male Engineer More Competent than a Female Engineer? Children’s Beliefs about Males and Females in STEM Fields" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Women have historically been underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (Handelsman et al., 2005). Although boys and girls start out performing similarly on STEM-related school subjects, the gap between them widens as they mature (Hyde & Linn, 2006), leading to the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields at the college level and in the workforce (Handelsman et al., 2005; NSF, 2013). One possible interpretation of this widening gap is that women are conforming to gender stereotypes: women’s stereotypical beliefs about their abilities create a self-stereotype threat that hinders their performance (Cundiff et al., 2013; Else-Quest et al., 2013; Shapiro & Williams, 2012). Girls and women may also be threatened by others’ (men’s and women’s) stereotypical beliefs and expectations (Moss-Racusin et al., 2012). It is thus important to explore precursors of gender stereotypes about STEM fields in childhood.

Children acquire gender stereotypes about toys and domestic activities as early as age 2 (Serbin et al., 2002) and use these stereotypes to make judgments about strangers’ knowledge and interests (Liben, Bigler, & Krogh, 2001; Ruble, Martin, & Berenbaum, 2006). However, little research has focused on children’s stereotypes about males and females in STEM fields.

In this study, children in kindergarten through third grade (N = 132) rated males’ and females’ competence and learning ability in STEM and non-STEM fields. Children were asked to indicate how well they thought men and women were at different STEM (e.g., engineer) and non-STEM (e.g., advertiser) professions and how well boys and girls did at tests of STEM (e.g., math) and non-STEM (e.g., grammar) subjects. Children also indicated how difficult they thought STEM and non-STEM professions were. In addition, children were asked to indicate their school-subject preferences and career aspirations.

Overall, children attributed higher competence to males in STEM professions than females in STEM professions (see Figure 1). This pattern was more pronounced in boys and in older children. Older children also believed that STEM professions were more difficult for adults. When rating other children’ learning ability (see Figure 2), participants expressed in-group bias resulting in boys attributing higher learning ability to boys on most items and girls attributing higher ability to girls. However, girls did not rate females as more capable of learning than males when judging learning for STEM subjects. Thus, boys appear to perceive a larger gap between boys’ and girls’ learning ability, especially on STEM fields, whereas girls’ ratings suggest that both in-group bias and STEM stereotypes influence their judgments. With respect to school-subject preferences, boys and girls had similar school-subject preferences and similar likelihoods of citing STEM career aspirations. However, their career aspirations were stereotypical overall, with boys more likely to cite masculine professions (e.g., engineer, computer scientist) and girls more likely to cite feminine professions (e.g., nurse, artist). Taken together, these results suggest that detrimental effects of gender stereotypes on children’s beliefs about women’s abilities begin early in development. Implications for understanding precursors of the STEM gender gap and for informing intervention work will be discussed.

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