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2012 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 6721 words || 
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1. Ross, Jon. "“Man Up?” “Man Down?” Man Overboard? The New Male Identity and “Mascu-Lingo” of the 21st Century" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 12, 2012 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p544911_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: “Man Up.” “The End of Men.” Manning Up. Man Down. If popular press is any indication, a new discourse is emerging around American men and their identity in the 21st Century. The prevailing wisdom (not to mention economic and social realities) is that hegemonic masculinity and the traditional male identity that accompanies it are receding – if not irrelevant in a post-industrial economy built on brains over brawn, of “knowledge jobs” over those traditionally considered “manly.” If language and rhetoric are important signifiers of emerging social change and new attitudes, the old Macho is on its way out. Even the global economic downturn has a gender-appropriate term: “He-Cession.”

While these euphemisms and taglines might help sell manuscripts and serve as fodder for late-night hosts, they also represent important issues for public policymakers and private-sector leaders. For example, “work-family balance” – created to accommodate the explosion of working mothers over the past generation – now calls for adaptation to men seeking a “daddy track,” if only because millions of men in two-income families are no longer primary breadwinners. The ramifications of this emerging discourse – especially the public policies and private-sector practices required to respond to changing family economics and demographics – present an important challenge. How do American society, government, business, and media move from the “mommy track” to something more accommodating to men – without becoming a “mommy state?”

The paper will provide an overview of this emerging “mascu-lingo” and the policies and practices needed to respond to the trends it signifies.

2009 - ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 248 words || 
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2. Tuval, Smadar. "“Rich man, poor man, beggar man, thief...”? The role of the school psychological diagnostic test in directing children into a special education career" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Jul 14, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p314361_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This presentation is a chapter from ethnographic research whose aim was to study the social representations of Israeli elementary school staffs, which direct children from the general educational system into various special education frameworks. An interpretive analysis of the findings found a continuous social selection process directing children into various education careers, removing certain children from the normative system.
The Israeli school system’s declared ideological position is one of inclusion and opposes exclusions. Despite “the class” as the basic structural element of the elementary school, a fundamentally inclusive construct designed to take in all of the region’s children, many institutions have been built into the school to serve stratification and exclusion. One of the most outstanding was the psychological educational diagnostic test. On one hand the ideology of the psychological diagnosis, in the educational discourse was one of inclusion and assistance in mainstreaming children, based on an egalitarian social outlook; on the other hand, in practice, the psychological diagnosis has served as a classifying and excluding tool representing a stratified, hierarchical social outlook.
The representation of the diagnostic test as an “objective” instrument supporting exclusion, camouflages the removal of children into the special education track. . The decision to direct the child to a special education framework almost inevitably follows testing, and the evaluation becomes an irretrievable act, a kind of ritual of exclusion. Thus, the decision to send a child for psychological diagnostic testing has become almost identical with the decision to exclude him from the normative system.

2011 - RSA Annual Meeting Words: 148 words || 
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3. Byars, Jana. "Man, Italian Noble Man: Performing Ideal Masculinity in Early Modern Italy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, Hilton Montreal Bonaventure Hotel, Montreal, Quebec Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p481224_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: From Cellini's raucously violent autobiography, to Pino's measured discussion of writing, to the perfectly affected sprezzatura described by Castiglione, there was no shortage of prescriptive literature about ideas of masculinity in early modern Italy. In all cases the unifying element of ideal masculinity was that it was not merely a collection of traits, but instead a portion of a gender identity performed in opposition to a feminized other. The stage could be Constantinople or the Tuscan countryside, battlefields or drawing rooms. The actors could play any number or roles: women, foreigners, the poor, the slightly stupider courtier, the slower sword. Using as its framework Judith Butler's Bodies that Matter and coming from a larger work on pan-Mediterranean ideals of masculinity, this study applies theories of performance and gender to a close reading of Italian conduct manuals in order to insert masculinity in the matrix of early modern identity.

2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Yavorsky, Jill., Cohen, Philip. and Qian, Yue. "Man Up, Man Down: Race-ethnicity and the Hierarchy of Men in Female-dominated Work" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1120460_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Occupational segregation is a critical determinant of economic gender inequality. Scholars have largely overlooked, however, the significance of race and socioeconomic status to determine which men traverse gender-boundaries into female-dominated, typically devalued, work. Examining the gender composition of the jobs that racial minority men occupy provides critical insights into mechanisms of broader racial disparities in the labor market – in addition to stalled occupational desegregation trends between men and women. Using nationally representative data from the three-year American Community Survey (2010–2012), we examine how race/ethnicity and education influence which men occupy gender-typed jobs. We find that racial minority men are more likely than White men to occupy female-dominated jobs at all levels of education—except highly-educated Asian/Pacific Islander men. Moreover, racialized patterns are exacerbated at the lower end of the social class spectrum, as men in female-dominated occupations are disproportionately Black, Hispanic, and Asian. These results clearly illustrate how gendered jobs are part of the racial hierarchy among male workers. More broadly, these findings help inform intersectionality theory and have implications for occupational inequality patterns among men as well as between men and women.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 299 words || 
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5. Gilli, Mauro. and Gilli, Andrea. "Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight? A Socio-Economic Analysis of the US Military" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1124004_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Do the poor disproportionately bear the human cost of defending America? According to the consensus among the public, policy-makers and academics, the poor are both more likely to enlist in US armed forces and to pay with their life the price of US security. In addition to moral considerations, this topic is important also for its policy and theoretical implications: a military primarily composed of the poorest segments of a society can, among others, alter policy-makers’ incentives to resort to force as well as affect its performance in the battlefield. In this article, we question this consensus. First, the causal mechanism underlying existing research is based on unwarranted assumptions. Second, the empirical evidence supporting this argument relies on aggregate data (e.g., average or median income by zip-code) that do not permit to reach definitive conclusions about enlisted personnel’s socio-economic background. We address these problems by drawing from recent works on the evolution of modern warfare and change in military technology in order to develop a demand-side theory of military personnel that we test on individual-level data gathered from the Department of Defense and the NLSY97 survey. We argue that the 1970s U.S. Offset Strategy has promoted a dramatic change in warfare (the 1990s information technology-driven Revolution in Military Affairs) that has progressively led, on the one hand, to a more capital-intensive military and, on the other, to a more selective recruitment process. According to our theory, we expect those coming from poor and disadvantaged segments of the American society to be less likely to meet the requirements of the military. Consistent with our argument, in contrast to the post-Vietnam era, we find that those who enter the U.S. military are not statistically different from the median household with regard to education, cognitive abilities, parental income and other socio-economic indicators.

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