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2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 202 words || 
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1. Lloyd, Gabriella. "Mandating Security: UN Peacekeeping Mandates and Civilian Protection" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1123255_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Civil conflict zones pose enormous risks to the civilians inhabiting them. Among these risks is the risk of attack by armed groups, whose decisions to attack civilians are structured by their desires retain the upper hand in negotiations. UN peacekeeping missions can help protect civilians from the risk of attack. UN missions have been shown to lengthen ceasefires and reduce battlefield hostilities. UN peacekeepers, meanwhile, can separate combatants, disarm them, and impose barriers between combatants and civilians. In this paper, I argue that mission mandates, or the tasks assigned to a mission by the Security Council, can impact how successfully missions protect civilians in civil conflict zones. Specifically, I argue that the UN can protect civilians in conflict zones by deploying missions that are mandated either to protect civilians or to build environments in which civilians will be safer. Additionally, the more comprehensive a mission’s mandate is, the safer civilians will be from the violence of armed groups. I test this argument empirically using data from Hultman, Kathman and Shannon (2013) and original data on UN mission mandates. I find that mission mandates do matter for civilian protection in conflict zones, at least when it comes to preventing attacks by government forces.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Pages: 39 pages || Words: 11794 words || 
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2. Hardt, Heidi. "Mandates that Matter: Evaluating the Impacts of Regional Organization Mandates on Peace Operation Effectiveness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311595_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The peace operation mandate issued by a regional organization holds the potential to ‘make or break’ an operation’s prospects for success. The mandate identifies the operation’s objectives, endows the operation with external legitimacy, and reflects me

2008 - The Law and Society Association Words: 368 words || 
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3. Feldman, Yuval. and Tyler, Tom. "Mandating Justice: The Perils and Potential Promise of Mandating Fair Treatment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Bonaventure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 27, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p235884_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: A core legal concern is with whether and how legal authorities ought to intervene in organizations or communities by creating and supporting the motivation to adhere to rules. In this study our concern is with the influence of mandating “fair” procedures within work settings. Prior research documents the generally favorable influence of fair procedures upon rule adherence in work organizations. When employees evaluate the processes by which decisions are made in their workplace as being just they are more likely to comply with organizational rules. More importantly, they voluntarily adhere to such rules, saving organizations the significant costs of creating and maintaining an effective surveillance system. Given the benefits of fair procedures an important question is whether the law should mandate such fair procedures, i.e. should require businesses to create them in work settings. The legal system, after all, has an interest in regulating businesses in ways that protect society from the influences of unethical employee conduct. Since the use of fair procedures by management encourages rule following by employees, it seems reasonable to suggest that businesses should be required to create and enact such procedures. But, is such an approach a good idea? An examination of the psychological literature on procedural justice suggests two conflicting answers. The first is no. This argument is based upon the finding that when people react to procedures they react to the intentions of the actors. People use the procedures they experience to understand the trustworthiness of authorities, believing that trustworthy authorities use fair procedures. If this is true, it suggests that the same procedure might not communicate intention information if it is mandated. On the other hand, it is possible to argue that mandating fair treatment is a good idea because it creates a culture in which people evaluate their work setting by evaluating whether their rights are being respected. People could potentially evaluate their workplace along a wide variety of dimensions, and there are many benefits associated with focusing people on issues of procedural justice. Hence, if mandating procedures leads people to evaluate their experience in terms of those procedures, it may be desirable.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 21 pages || Words: 6325 words || 
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4. Peoples, Clayton. "Mandating Peace or Mandating Conflict? How Ethnic-Based Policies Impact Interethnic Relations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p110586_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Ethnic-based policies—-both discriminatory and remedial—-are in place in many countries throughout the world today, sometimes enacted with the intent of improving interethnic relations. But evidence on how these policies affect interethnic relations is sparse and inconclusive. In this study, I empirically examine how discriminatory and remedial policies impact the likelihood groups will be engaged in interethnic violence using data on over 130 groups from more than 75 countries. Performing the analyses at the group level, using disadvantaged minority groups as my units of analyses, I find that discrimination has a positive effect on the likelihood the groups will be engaged in interethnic violence, while remediation has a negative effect, controlling for important group- and country-level factors. I discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how government-mandated policies influence peace and conflict.

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