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2008 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 259 words || 
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1. Sempolinski, Joseph. "Marginality: A Wider Examination of the Relationship of Prior Congressional Electoral Margins To Electoral Success." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel Intercontinental, New Orleans, LA, Jan 09, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p212684_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Recent research on American government has discussed in great detail incumbency advantage in elections, especially the House of Representatives. One thread of that research has looked at marginal districts. In Gary Jacobson’s 1987 article he pointed out that while the margin of victory in House races had increased, this did not translate into a decrease in the likelihood of being elected. This article was critiqued by Bauer and Hibbing two years later. They argued that the results that Jacobson had uncovered were being driven almost entirely by the 1974 post-Watergate election because of Jacobson’s relatively small dataset.
I replicate and expand upon the results of these articles. I utilize House elections that have occurred since the Bauer and Hibbing article to construct a new dataset that has not been examined in this way. Have the patterns regarding marginality held up over the past 16 years? The answer is a qualified no. Also, I expand the dataset backwards. By expanding the dataset back to 1914 we get a better historical context for this problem.
1914 was chosen because of my second expansion to this research agenda, the United States Senate. Too often the Senate is neglected in Congressional research. By including the Senate we have another point of reference for the importance of changes in election patterns of the House. Since similar patterns exist in Senate elections it points to different potential causes for the phenomena observed than if the Senate move differently from the House.

2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Bakker, J. I.. "The Neglected Marginal Man Thesis and Marginality: Robert Park and Everett Stonequist" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1121915_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Robert Park and Everett Stonequist are neglected sociologists. Their important theoretical contribution concerning marginality has been ignored in the last few decades, with the only exception being some research on Judaism and Jewish Americans. The out-dated term Caucasian continues to be used but the terms "Metis" and "mulatto" are now considered politically incorrect in the U.S. The key aspect of the Marginal Man (or Person) thesis is the idea that someone who experiences marginality must either "sink" or "swim." National background may mean returning to the home country (e.g. Poland). But it is harder to shake one's genetic background. We tend to remember those who succeeded and we often forget all those who did not prosper. The global world will make the marginality concept even more important as more and more people connect and blend ethnically and racially. We have forgotten that W.A.S.P. refered initially to only an elite group and not all those who are considered culturally "white."

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 144 words || 
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3. Stassen, Heather. "Marginalized among the Marginal: Reflections from Collapsing Field Experiences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p365316_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Since April 2008, I have been in the field exploring two marginal public culture phenomena, amateur bracket racing and mixed martial arts. These experiences, while vastly different in terms of communication and overall cultural pattens, have become blurred in terms of my own role as participant-observer. As a woman, I feel marginalized in the both these marginal cultures. Starting with my entrance into the field through male informants and reflecting on issues of corporeality, I assert that my sex, gender, education, and stature create unique barriers for entrance, participation, and prolonged engagement in these two fields. While my own status imposes itself on the field, the field has also challenged my notion of self. The result of my reflections from recent field experiences is a unique understanding of self, and a blurring of two seemingly different phenomena and contexts.

2011 - SCRA Biennial Meeting Words: 277 words || 
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4. Klein, Kate. "From Margin to Centre to Margin Once More – Against an “Inclusion Model” of PAR" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SCRA Biennial Meeting, Roosevelt University/Harold Washington Library, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p498039_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Is "inclusion" enough to achieve liberation? Based on the experiences of engaging in a collaborative research study in Waterloo Region, Ontario, designed to assess the vulnerability of people experiencing homelessness to global climate change, this paper will discuss the challenges encountered when using an "inclusion model" to engage in the Action of Participatory Action Research.

The research study in question was a three-phase project that brought together university-based researchers, Region of Waterloo staff, social service workers, and people with lived experience of homelessness. In Phase I of the research, 48 people with lived experience of absolute homelessness were interviewed about their experience of extreme weather event and how they deal with those situations. The interviews were conducted by two university-based researchers and two peer researchers with lived experience. Following this, existing climate data and models were reviewed in Phase II and expected climate changes within Waterloo Region were identified. Phase III was guided by a community reference group consisting of key stakeholders and included the development and dissemination of a community report and a full day planning workshop with a variety of community members, content experts, and decision-makers.

While Participatory Action Research has been touted as one of the most inclusive forms of research aimed at improving social conditions, this project saw high attrition rates for stakeholders with lived experience of homelessness, and by the end of the project, almost all action strategies developed to address the issue in question were virtually inaccessible to those without the social power to enact top-down change. Due to these experiences, this paper cautions researchers against merely "including" marginalized voices in PAR, and emphasizes the need to "centre" these voices instead.

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