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2014 - 38th Annual NCBS National Conference Words: 249 words || 
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1. Johnson, T.. "Crashing the Black Gender Party or Return of the Sacred Black Masculine: Historicizing Progressive Black Masculinities, Representation, and Black Masculinism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 38th Annual NCBS National Conference, Miami Marriott Dadeland Hotel, Miami, Florida, Mar 05, 2014 <Not Available>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p730745_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many Black males (young and old) have become apathetic about their options and future potential--something not often understood by those who don't share their experience, limited options, and social pressure to perform. Yet despite the opposition from society and the limited options for success, many Black men, by any means necessary, have gone to detrimental extremes to demonstrate a desirable masculinity that will bring about status, wealth, respect, and the affections and loyalty of their women. Gender, for Black men, has become a life or death issue, as many of our youth are drug-dealing and in gangs, many of our adults are incarcerated or are lifelong sexual play-boys, and many of our elders are dying too early from stress and health issues all due to one thing: trying live up to an unrealistic standard of "manhood" historically excluded from Black men, even in the contemporary world.

As a result, many Black males who've long tired of these confining definitions by others, now find ourselves on the precipice of change, for those who dare consider it. Should we abandon our definitions of manhood and create a new one? Will our families and communities support such an endeavor? Will society's educational, law enforcement, and employment institutions be willing to accept it? These are some of the challenging questions that many Black men are struggling to answer. The answers can't be explored, however, until Black men first learn to articulate their own experiences, in their voices, and with a new gender vocabulary.

2018 - 42nd National Council for Black Studies Conference Words: 175 words || 
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2. Evans, Jazmin. "Examining Black Masculinity and Hyper Masculine Identities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 42nd National Council for Black Studies Conference, The Westing Buckhead, Atlanta, GA, Mar 13, 2018 <Not Available>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1382699_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: For centuries, Black men struggled with defining masculinity within their terms while navigating social stigmas of being African in America. Eurocentric hegemony has influenced and misrepresented Black masculinity to entirely reflect hyper masculine identities such as but not limited to: stereotypical images of danger, violence, and heterosexual dominance. Thus, deeming African men as inhuman; unable to feel emotions such as compassion, empathy, pain, sadness, and love. This scholarship reflects research on twenty African American male students at Kent State University in Kent,OH. Participants were asked to identify what is Black masculinity and why Black men identify with hyper masculine identities. Findings state that healthy masculinity involves aspects of both traditional masculinity and non-traditional masculinity, such as feelings of compassion and love. It was also found that Black men tend to identify with Hyper Masculine identities when faced with situations and/or environments that are deemed uncomfortable or stressful. Positive imagery of masculinity comes from role models such as fathers, father figures, uncles, pastors, etc., while negative images of masculinity came from the media, television, and stereotypes.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 162 words || 
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3. Mitchell, Joseph. "Assessing the masculinity of traditional and nontraditional masculine signs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p365661_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Masculinity is a multi-dimensional, fairly pliable construct scholars approach from many different perspectives (such as biological, social constructionist, and unified). Part of the environment that informs the meaning of masculinity to a given culture is the mass media. This study takes the constructivist theoretical perspective, which attempts to explain the activation of schemata. The schematic processes for this study concerns which schemata are activated as people perceive, process, and assess masculine signs. This study explores advertising, source of advertising, and gender role orientation’s influences on the assessment masculinity. Participants (N = 747) rated their own sex role orientation and then assessed the sex role orientation of the masculine imagery placed within various contexts. The results of this experiment reveal that gender role has a limited effect on schematic assessment of masculinity. Though gender role affects how people perceive the world, the extent to which it influences that perception is smaller than expected when compared to the effect of processing mass media imagery.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 140 words || 
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4. Cline, Benjamin. "Masculinity as a Communication Process: Stability and Change in Evangelical Christian Conceptions of Masculinity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p366629_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The concept of masculinity in Evangelical Christianity is ever-changing. On the other hand, one could look at the concept of masculinity in Evangelical Christian circles as being stagnant, even in the face of social pressures to reform. This paper argues that both are true. Evangelical Christian concepts of masculinity constitute an ideology in keeping with William Brown’s (1978) definition and therefore are a communication process. This paper examines the discourse in popular Evangelical Christian writings on masculinity and shows that there are competing and divergent definitions and discussions of masculinity within that discourse. Competing notions of the masculine, far from destabilizing the structures which constitute them, work together as a deviance compensating cycle allowing the ideology to adapt, remaining coherent in the face of social critique.

Brown, W. R. (1978). Ideology as Communication Process. Quarterly Journal of Speech 64, 123-140.

2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 233 words || 
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5. Chang, Yin-Kun. "Body / masculine stratification in gay students' groups: Discussion from the concept of hegemonic masculinity and body capital" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2018-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488111_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The focus in this paper is body / masculine stratification in school subcultures, particularly in gay students’ groups. This paper (1) questions why masculinity has become an ennobled concept in schooling and (2) discusses the relationships among the fear of crisis of masculinity and body stratification, and queerness in the student’s subculture in Taiwan. By reviewing relevant theoretical debates on the basis of some fieldwork-based data, this paper examines how external social or cultural mechanisms shape body and masculine identities in school fields. This paper will use the concepts of hegemonic masculinity and body capital to discuss this issue. The first concept – hegemonic masculinity—comes from R.W. Connell. Hegemonic masculinity refers to the idea that a culturally normative ideal of male behaviour exists (i.e., that to which men are strongly encouraged to aim), which is calculated to guarantee the dominant position of some men over others, and the subordination of women. In this paper, I use this concept to describe different body status and meanings in gay students’ communities. The gay who has stud body with strong masculinity occupies the top position. On the contrary, the gay who has obesity body with sissy temperament carries with certain stigma in this stratification. In other words, we need to use body capital to analyze this issue. In the end, this paper will try to build body typology in the gay students’ community with theoretical debates.

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