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2014 - 38th Annual NCBS National Conference Words: 249 words || 
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1. Johnson, T.. "Crashing the Black Gender Party or Return of the Sacred Black Masculine: Historicizing Progressive Black Masculinities, Representation, and Black Masculinism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 38th Annual NCBS National Conference, Miami Marriott Dadeland Hotel, Miami, Florida, Mar 05, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-06-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p730745_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many Black males (young and old) have become apathetic about their options and future potential--something not often understood by those who don't share their experience, limited options, and social pressure to perform. Yet despite the opposition from society and the limited options for success, many Black men, by any means necessary, have gone to detrimental extremes to demonstrate a desirable masculinity that will bring about status, wealth, respect, and the affections and loyalty of their women. Gender, for Black men, has become a life or death issue, as many of our youth are drug-dealing and in gangs, many of our adults are incarcerated or are lifelong sexual play-boys, and many of our elders are dying too early from stress and health issues all due to one thing: trying live up to an unrealistic standard of "manhood" historically excluded from Black men, even in the contemporary world.

As a result, many Black males who've long tired of these confining definitions by others, now find ourselves on the precipice of change, for those who dare consider it. Should we abandon our definitions of manhood and create a new one? Will our families and communities support such an endeavor? Will society's educational, law enforcement, and employment institutions be willing to accept it? These are some of the challenging questions that many Black men are struggling to answer. The answers can't be explored, however, until Black men first learn to articulate their own experiences, in their voices, and with a new gender vocabulary.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 140 words || 
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2. Cline, Benjamin. "Masculinity as a Communication Process: Stability and Change in Evangelical Christian Conceptions of Masculinity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-06-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p366629_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The concept of masculinity in Evangelical Christianity is ever-changing. On the other hand, one could look at the concept of masculinity in Evangelical Christian circles as being stagnant, even in the face of social pressures to reform. This paper argues that both are true. Evangelical Christian concepts of masculinity constitute an ideology in keeping with William Brown’s (1978) definition and therefore are a communication process. This paper examines the discourse in popular Evangelical Christian writings on masculinity and shows that there are competing and divergent definitions and discussions of masculinity within that discourse. Competing notions of the masculine, far from destabilizing the structures which constitute them, work together as a deviance compensating cycle allowing the ideology to adapt, remaining coherent in the face of social critique.

Brown, W. R. (1978). Ideology as Communication Process. Quarterly Journal of Speech 64, 123-140.

2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 233 words || 
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3. Chang, Yin-Kun. "Body / masculine stratification in gay students' groups: Discussion from the concept of hegemonic masculinity and body capital" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-06-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488111_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The focus in this paper is body / masculine stratification in school subcultures, particularly in gay students’ groups. This paper (1) questions why masculinity has become an ennobled concept in schooling and (2) discusses the relationships among the fear of crisis of masculinity and body stratification, and queerness in the student’s subculture in Taiwan. By reviewing relevant theoretical debates on the basis of some fieldwork-based data, this paper examines how external social or cultural mechanisms shape body and masculine identities in school fields. This paper will use the concepts of hegemonic masculinity and body capital to discuss this issue. The first concept – hegemonic masculinity—comes from R.W. Connell. Hegemonic masculinity refers to the idea that a culturally normative ideal of male behaviour exists (i.e., that to which men are strongly encouraged to aim), which is calculated to guarantee the dominant position of some men over others, and the subordination of women. In this paper, I use this concept to describe different body status and meanings in gay students’ communities. The gay who has stud body with strong masculinity occupies the top position. On the contrary, the gay who has obesity body with sissy temperament carries with certain stigma in this stratification. In other words, we need to use body capital to analyze this issue. In the end, this paper will try to build body typology in the gay students’ community with theoretical debates.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 9977 words || 
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4. Fleming, Paul., DiClemente, Ralph. and Barrington, Clare. "Masculinity and HIV: A Synthesis and Application of Theories of Masculinity for Understanding Men's HIV-risk Behaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726680_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite its biological origins, HIV/AIDS is largely shaped by social forces. Social constructions of gender norms, and those of masculinity in particularly, are key drivers of the epidemic. While the connection between masculinity and HIV-risk behaviors have been made, there is a need to integrate social science theories of masculinity with empirical research on the mechanisms by which masculinity shapes men’s behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to review the theory, evidence, and mechanisms for how men’s condom use and number of sexual partners are influenced by norms of masculinity to order to identify future directions for HIV-prevention with heterosexual men. Evidence shows that gender ideology and gender role stress are both associated with less condom use. There are three main constructs of masculinity that may limit men’s use of condoms: 1) sexual desire, 2) ability to perform sexually (losing erection/performance), and 3) bodily invulnerability (it is a woman’s concern). Each of these characteristics are associated with masculinity in most societies and men’s desire to demonstrate these characteristics may impede their condom use. Gender ideology is also associated with the number of partners a man has (more traditional ideology, higher number of partners). The relationship between masculinity and having multiple partners can primarily be explained by masculine norms encouraging men to a) have power over other men, b) have power over women, and c) have an active ‘male sex drive’. Future directions for HIV prevention are considered in light of this review.

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