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2011 - National Women's Studies Association Words: 95 words || 
1. Drake, Lena. "If "No Means Yes" and "Yes Means Anal", What Does Anal Mean?: Problematic Feminist Responses to Yale's Call to Sexual Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Women's Studies Association, SHERATON HOTEL (DOWNTOWN) ATLANTA, Atlanta, GA, Nov 10, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Yale's situation of late 2010—wherein reprehensible chanting of “no means yes, yes means anal” and other sexually violent phrases were broadcast by a fraternity—deserves and received a wide range of feminist comment. This paper presents a case study by which to deconstruct how particular feminist “deployments” of responses to societal violence, especially the discussion of “anal” as degrading, may actually reinforce a hegemonic view of sexuality, and may be harmful to those with already marginalized sexualities. The specific contexts of Yale, rape acceptance, and anti-violence responses as inclusive or exclusive are evaluated, and expanded upon.

2015 - ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference Words: 225 words || 
2. McCray, Kenja. "“'Education Didn't Mean a Degree, It Means How We Serve Our Race and All Humanity': Women’s Cultural Nationalist Activism and the Campus-Community Connection, 1967-1981”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: While many histories of the Black Campus Movement emphasize the importance of campus activism during the late 1960s and early 1970s in catalyzing the Black Studies Movement and instating the field in institutions of higher education, exploring the work of female cultural-nationalist activists of the era invokes a greater understanding of the synergy between students and communities. It is well known that the Campus Movement catalyzed the reorganization of academia, broadening its inclusiveness and mission as well as altering the meaning of knowledge production. Campus protests, however, also directly and indirectly shaped many of the women involved in Kawaida-influenced cultural-nationalist organizations. These women took many core Campus and Black Studies Movement ideals to their grassroots, neighborhood work. Building upon African American Studies scholar Jonathan Fenderson’s assertions, this paper will explore the idea that cultural nationalists’ advocacy for community control of educational institutions, independent schools and presses, neighborhood bookstores, study groups, and other such activities represented “the living part of the black intellectual tradition.” I contend that women were central to such cultural-nationalist pursuits and, thus, were at the heart of these living, black intellectual traditions because many had come of age during or shortly after the Black Campus and Black Studies Movements and acted upon some of the movements’ core tenets within the community-based, Kawaida-influenced organizations with which they were affiliated.

2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Long, Brooke. and Yarrison, Fritz. "What Does it Mean to be Childless? Exploring Meaning Structures of Parents and Childless Individuals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One of the main tenants of structural symbolic interactionism is the shared meanings and expectations individuals hold for specific roles in society. Identity theory posits that these shared meanings can be internalized by an individual as an identity. Previous research has explored these meanings and identities mainly with respect to positively evaluated, normative identities. A growing number of individuals, however, claim identities that are outside of the everyday expectations of American society. These individuals, as previous research indicates, face negative evaluation, and can be stigmatized for claiming these negative roles. This research will explore the meaning structures associated with three identities, parenting, childless, and temporarily childless. The main focus will be to evaluate the degree of shared meanings associated with both normative and counter-normative identities. Both individuals who claim normative and counter-normative identities were asked to evaluate how others in general view their group, as well as the opposite group. Findings show a high level of shared meaning regardless of an individual’s own identity. As expected, respondents appear to be in agreement that society in general views parents more positively than the childless. Childless individuals, however, do not appear to internalize these negative evaluations as components of their self-view.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 1011 words || 
4. Green, Qiana. "(Re)learning what it means to be: understanding how African American graduate student women make meaning through study abroad" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Purpose
Previous studies have illuminated some of the experiences of Black women who engage in study abroad (Chapman, 2007; Henry, 2014; Sol, 2014; Willis, 2012), but gaps in the literature exist relative to sampling and methods. First, previous studies only examined undergraduate women’s experiences. Undergraduate meaning making of study abroad focuses primarily on self-identity, personal desires, and experience (Dirkx, Spohr, Tepper, & Tons, 2009). For graduate students, “the sense-making process reflects a complex relationship between academic or professional goals and self-formative processes that seem inherent to adult learners participating in formal education” (Dirkx et al., 2009). Second, previous studies have utilized semi-structured interviews and surveys to understand participants’ study abroad experiences. How African American women make meaning of their experiences through reflection and dialogue with other African American women who have studied abroad requires more in depth inquiry.

Epistemological Framework and Research Questions
I draw upon two theoretical frameworks in this study. In Black feminist epistemology, Collins (2009) suggests knowledge is first constructed through intersectional lived experiences and second through reflection and dialogue about those experiences, especially with other Black women. Endarkened feminist epistemology (Dillard, 2000) expands Collins’s Black feminist epistemology for the purposes of educational research: “an endarkened feminist epistemology is an approach to teaching and research that honors the wisdom, spirituality, and critical interventions of transnational Black woman's ways of knowing and being in research” (Okpalaoka & Dillard, 2012, p. 6). Collins’s (2009) and Dillard’s (2000) theories assisted me in understanding how Black women generate knowledge through their lived experience, reflection, and dialogue. The following research questions guided this study:
• How do graduate-level self-identified African American women make meaning of study abroad?
o In what ways does the transnational context of study abroad elicit meaning for graduate-level self-identified African American women?
o What aspects of the study abroad experience influence graduate-level self-identified African American women’s understanding of their experiences?

Methods, Data, and Analysis
I utilized sista circle methodology (Johnson, 2015) for the present study. Sista circles are simultaneously a qualitative research methodology and provide a supportive space for Black women to connect in small groups, discuss topics, and generate collective cultural knowledge (Johnson, 2015). Sista circles center the informal communication styles unique to African American women, provide spaces of empowerment where participants support and uplift one another, and allow the researcher to move beyond simply facilitating and become an active participant in the discussion.

Participants consisted of self-identified African American women currently enrolled in a graduate program in the United States and who have studied abroad during their current graduate program. I conducted eight virtual sista circles consisting of 3-5 participants in each group, including myself. Five open-ended questions were asked to guide the discussion. Sista circle data was transcribed, coded, and analyzed through focused smaller chunks of data as opposed to line by line (Charmaz, 2006). Viewing and understanding the data from chunks assisted me in illuminating the nuances of these women’s experiences.

The present paper focuses on one of the three findings from my larger dissertation, paying particular attention to how study abroad contexts influence meaning making for African American graduate student women. Preliminary results indicate a nuanced understanding of lived experience and social positionality arises from African American graduate students as a result of their study abroad experiences. Participants meaning making centered around anti-Blackness in Asia, feelings of home in the African diaspora, and the influence of studying abroad with other African American women. Through sista circles, African American graduate student women co-construct meaning of Blackwomanhood that moves beyond the national container (Shahjahan & Kezar, 2013) and complicates how Black women’s social positionality is understood globally.

Significance of the study
First, Collins (2009) posits the ways Black women come to know is through their lived experiences and by dialoguing and reflecting about those experiences, especially with other Black women. The use of sista circles allowed Black women to generate knowledge in the manner most culturally significant to them. Contextually, little in-depth inquiry has occurred into how studying abroad, as a transnational context, influences meaning making, particularly for Black women. Regarding practical significance, understanding Black graduate women’s study abroad experiences may lead to more culturally relevant recruitment and program development in study abroad. Second, findings from this study may inform how transnational educational experiences influence graduate education. Third, examining these particular participants’ lived experiences during study abroad may assist future implementation regarding infusing global perspectives into their professional roles beyond graduation.

Chapman, Y. M. (2007). "I am Not my Hair! Or am I?": Black Women's Transformative Experience in their Self Perceptions of Abroad and at Home. (Masters thesis, Georgia State University).

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London, UK: SAGE.

Collins, P. H. (2009). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Routledge Classics.

Dillard, C. B. (2000). The substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen: Examining an endarkened feminist epistemology in educational research and leadership. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 13(6), 661-681.

Dirkx, J. M., Spohr, R., Tepper, L., & Tons, S. (2009). Promise and problems of fostering transformative learning for adults in short-term study abroad programs. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, Community and Extension Education, Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, IL.

Henry, S. S. (2014). Finding ourselves abroad: how African American women successfully navigate the study abroad process (Masters Thesis). Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

Johnson, L. (2015). Using sista circles to examine the professional experience of contemporary black women teachers in schools. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens)

Okpalaoka, C. L., & Dillard, C. B. (2012). (Im)migrations, relations, and identities of African peoples: Toward an endarkened transnational feminist praxis in education. Educational Foundations, 26(1-2), 121.

Shahjahan, R. A., & Kezar, A. J. (2013). Beyond the “National Container” Addressing Methodological Nationalism in Higher Education Research. Educational Researcher, 42(1), 20-29.

Sol, N. (2014). Outside looking in: Case studies of the effects of study abroad on female African
American university students’ identities (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cambridge).

Willis, T. Y. (2012). Rare but there: An intersectional exploration of the experiences and
outcomes of Black women who studied abroad through community college programs. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, CA.

2017 - LRA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
5. Park, Jie. and Simpson, Lori. "Making Meaning Critically and Creatively: Expanding English Language Learners’ Meaning Making through Graphic Novels" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA Annual Conference, Tampa Marriott Waterside Hotel & Marina, Tampa, FL, Nov 29, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

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