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2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Pages: 37 pages || Words: 8828 words || 
1. Moser, Robert. and Goodnow, Regina. "Layers of ethnicity: The effects of ethnic federalism, minority-majority districts, and minority concentration on the electoral success of ethnic minorities in Russia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 02, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2018-07-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Studies on the US have shown that minority-majority districts increase the turnout of minority voters and the electoral success of minority candidates. However, few studies have explored how various forms of ethnic geography affect minority electoral politics. We address this issue by examining the effects of Russia’s multiple layers of ethnic geography on minority electoral behavior. Russia’s ethnic federalism makes it a particularly interesting case since this type of federal structure arguably has direct and indirect effects of its own. Historically, ethnic federalism has advanced minority elites in leadership positions and promoted minorities’ geographic concentration and resistance to assimilation. We use census and electoral data disaggregated to the raion-level (roughly equal to a US county) to analyze the voting behavior of specific ethnic groups. We also use a multilevel framework, which allows us to capture the extent of the variation in our dependent variables--voter turnout and minority vote share--that is explained by the various levels of analysis, including raions, electoral districts, and federal regions. Our initial findings suggest that each level of ethnic concentration has a mobilizing effect on minorities.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 200 words || 
2. Schmuhl, Margaret., Mills, Colleen. and Pelletier, Emily. "Policing the Minority Threat: Police Misconduct against Minorities as an Outcome of Minority Group Threat" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-07-21 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Existing literature investigates several aspects of policing as an outcome of group conflict, specifically minority group threat. Group conflict theories assert that white intolerance manifests in response to growing minority presence, which is perceived as a competitive threat to white political and economic interests (Green, Strolovich, & Wong, 1998, p. 373). In response to minority presence, the dominant group seeks to preserve its dominance through social control (Blalock, 1967). In particular, King (2007) explains that geographic areas with higher levels of minorities tend to experience higher levels of social control. As such, several studies (Campbell, Berk, & Fyfe, 1998; Holmes, 2000; Jacobs & O'Brien, 1998; Kane, 2002; Kane, 2003; Kane, Gustafson, & Bruell, 2013) demonstrate areas with higher levels of minorities experience higher levels of policing activities, including police deployment, misdemeanor arrests, use of physical, excessive, and deadly force, and other misconduct. This cross-sectional analysis uses 2010 data from the National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project (NPMSRP) to assess police misconduct against minorities as an outcome of minority group threat on the county level. The study utilizes the following indicators of minority group threat: percent black, percent Hispanic, demographic change, and economic indicators.

2005 - Western Political Science Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 14729 words || 
3. Espino, Rodolfo. "Minority Representation and Minority Empowerment: The Effects of Minority Representation on Political Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association, Marriott Hotel, Oakland, California, Mar 17, 2005 <Not Available>. 2018-07-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Scholars of race and representation recognize that studies of representation must also assess the impact of representation on constituents' behavior and attitudes. Such a focus sheds light on the extent to which minority Americans view the American political
system as legitimate and the extent to which they view their own role in the political system as meaningful. Literature on ``minority political empowerment'' initially held an exclusive focus on black empowerment at the local level. Recent studies have expanded this focus to other levels of political representation and
now also to Latinos in the United States. Yet, these studies will largely focus on only one group vis-a-vis one type of representative. This paper expands on earlier studies of minority empowerment and representation by comparing white, black, and Latino
attitudes and behavior toward different types of racial
representation in Congress by utilizing data from the same source. The data used in this paper comes from the ANES between 1992 and 2000. The general findings show that Latinos are positively responsive to Latino representation in Congress and both black and white Americans are not positively or negatively responsive to either black or Latino representation in Congress.

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 33 words || 
4. Ueda, Michiko. "Do Minorities Benefit from Having Minority Representatives? ? Minority Representation and its Impact on State Policy Outcomes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2018-07-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines whether increased minority representation in state legislatures in the last 30 years has changed policy outcomes. It shows that the presence of minority representatives had notable effects on policies.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 31 pages || Words: 8888 words || 
5. Johnson, Carter. "Minority Rights for Post-CommunistCountries of Europe: are there “required minority rights” for EUaccession?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2018-07-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
With the exception of Belarus and Russia, all post-communist European
countries have expressed their desire to join the European Union. While
eight of those countries are now set to join the EU next year, the
non-accession countries of Eastern Europe continue to adjust their
domestic policies in accordance with perceived EU requirements in
preparation for eventual membership. This paper will look at which
minority rights policies states need to adopt, if any, for acceptance
in the EU. While economic criteria and the political criteria of Human
Rights and Democracy are relatively clear, distinct requirements for
minority rights remain elusive. Which policies need to be followed for
acceptance in the European Union?
This research paper is a comparative analysis of various European
states and analyzes three distinct blocs of countries to understand
both which minority policies are required for acceptance in the EU and
how far away the non-accession countries are from that goal. First, the
paper looks at EU member-states to discover if there is any common
policy inside Europe with respect to national or ethnic minorities; by
exploring EU-wide policies, we can learn more about what will be
expected of future members. Ascertaining member-state policies is
accomplished by analyzing EU-wide documents as well as national
legislation from member-states. Second, the paper
looks at the eight post-communist EU-accession countries and their
experience over the past 13 years. What demands were placed on these
countries vis-à-vis their minorities? What lessons can be drawn and
what standards have been created? Third, the paper looks at the
non-accession post-communist countries themselves, selecting a few case
studies from South-East Europe and the former Soviet Union to compare
their legislation with those of the first two groups.
This paper will show no common standards exist regarding minorities
inside the EU; the only applicable standards are those connected with
human rights Moreover, while the EU has established distinct criteria
for potential members, we can actually draw very few concrete policy
measures from the accession countries’ experience. Aside from a vague
prescription for “inclusive” rights found in the Copenhagen Criteria,
no minority rights policies were uniformly made conditional for
invitations to join the Union. This lack of enforced rights exists in
spite of the gravity attached to ethnic conflicts this past decade, and
despite the foreign policy priority given to minority issues after the
internecine wars witnessed in the post-communist region. More
importantly perhaps, this paper will demonstrate that pressure to
protect minorities that does exist is not based on any normative
principles of minority protection, but rather guided by the political
goal of international stability on the European continent. In fact, all
policy demands have been and continue to be ad hoc measures applied
inconsistently to different East European countries depending entirely
on specific concerns related to individual countries and their
minorities’ ability to mobilize.

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