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Showing 1 through 5 of 2,665 records.
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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 200 words || 
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1. Schmuhl, Margaret., Mills, Colleen. and Pelletier, Emily. "Policing the Minority Threat: Police Misconduct against Minorities as an Outcome of Minority Group Threat" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1030972_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Existing literature investigates several aspects of policing as an outcome of group conflict, specifically minority group threat. Group conflict theories assert that white intolerance manifests in response to growing minority presence, which is perceived as a competitive threat to white political and economic interests (Green, Strolovich, & Wong, 1998, p. 373). In response to minority presence, the dominant group seeks to preserve its dominance through social control (Blalock, 1967). In particular, King (2007) explains that geographic areas with higher levels of minorities tend to experience higher levels of social control. As such, several studies (Campbell, Berk, & Fyfe, 1998; Holmes, 2000; Jacobs & O'Brien, 1998; Kane, 2002; Kane, 2003; Kane, Gustafson, & Bruell, 2013) demonstrate areas with higher levels of minorities experience higher levels of policing activities, including police deployment, misdemeanor arrests, use of physical, excessive, and deadly force, and other misconduct. This cross-sectional analysis uses 2010 data from the National Police Misconduct Statistics and Reporting Project (NPMSRP) to assess police misconduct against minorities as an outcome of minority group threat on the county level. The study utilizes the following indicators of minority group threat: percent black, percent Hispanic, demographic change, and economic indicators.

2005 - Western Political Science Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 14729 words || 
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2. Espino, Rodolfo. "Minority Representation and Minority Empowerment: The Effects of Minority Representation on Political Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association, Marriott Hotel, Oakland, California, Mar 17, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p87542_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Scholars of race and representation recognize that studies of representation must also assess the impact of representation on constituents' behavior and attitudes. Such a focus sheds light on the extent to which minority Americans view the American political
system as legitimate and the extent to which they view their own role in the political system as meaningful. Literature on ``minority political empowerment'' initially held an exclusive focus on black empowerment at the local level. Recent studies have expanded this focus to other levels of political representation and
now also to Latinos in the United States. Yet, these studies will largely focus on only one group vis-a-vis one type of representative. This paper expands on earlier studies of minority empowerment and representation by comparing white, black, and Latino
attitudes and behavior toward different types of racial
representation in Congress by utilizing data from the same source. The data used in this paper comes from the ANES between 1992 and 2000. The general findings show that Latinos are positively responsive to Latino representation in Congress and both black and white Americans are not positively or negatively responsive to either black or Latino representation in Congress.

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 33 words || 
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3. Ueda, Michiko. "Do Minorities Benefit from Having Minority Representatives? ? Minority Representation and its Impact on State Policy Outcomes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p85284_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines whether increased minority representation in state legislatures in the last 30 years has changed policy outcomes. It shows that the presence of minority representatives had notable effects on policies.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Pages: 37 pages || Words: 8828 words || 
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4. Moser, Robert. and Goodnow, Regina. "Layers of ethnicity: The effects of ethnic federalism, minority-majority districts, and minority concentration on the electoral success of ethnic minorities in Russia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 02, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p362314_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Studies on the US have shown that minority-majority districts increase the turnout of minority voters and the electoral success of minority candidates. However, few studies have explored how various forms of ethnic geography affect minority electoral politics. We address this issue by examining the effects of Russia’s multiple layers of ethnic geography on minority electoral behavior. Russia’s ethnic federalism makes it a particularly interesting case since this type of federal structure arguably has direct and indirect effects of its own. Historically, ethnic federalism has advanced minority elites in leadership positions and promoted minorities’ geographic concentration and resistance to assimilation. We use census and electoral data disaggregated to the raion-level (roughly equal to a US county) to analyze the voting behavior of specific ethnic groups. We also use a multilevel framework, which allows us to capture the extent of the variation in our dependent variables--voter turnout and minority vote share--that is explained by the various levels of analysis, including raions, electoral districts, and federal regions. Our initial findings suggest that each level of ethnic concentration has a mobilizing effect on minorities.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 640 words || 
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5. Filindra, Alexandra. and Motyl, Matt. "Does it Pay for Minority Candidates to Derogate Minorities?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-11-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1112604_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: During the 2016 Republican presidential primary debates, Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, both children of Cuban refugees took strong anti-immigrant positions. Both argued against “amnesty” for undocumented immigrants, most of whom are Latinos. “If you’re supporting amnesty, you’re supporting … appeasement to radical Islamic terrorism,” Senator Cruz said at a campaign event (Flegenheimer 2015). Ben Carson, an African-American candidate has joined them, stating that many of the people who enter the country without documents are “criminals and rapists” not only from Latin America but also from a variety of Muslim nations. Carson has been critical not only of immigrants and immigration but also of African-Americans. In response to the Black Lives Matter Movement, Carson castigated the Black community for focusing on the actions of the police and not turning their efforts inwardly to address the issues of Black unemployment, education and advancement. According to Carson, the Black community should be ready to tell the nation that “we don’t want to be clothed, fed and housed. We want honor and dignity” (Carson 2015).
Research in political communication suggests that blatant prejudice does not pay for political candidates because a strong norm of equality has developed since the civil rights era (Mendelberg 2001; also see, Hutchings and Jardina 2009; Valentino et al. 2002). Furthermore, some work shows that minority candidates are more likely than whites to be penalized for bad behavior that is deemed inconsistent with prevailing norms (Berinsky et al. 2011). Yet, by November 2015, Ben Carson led the very crowded Republican primary field in the polls (along with Donald Trump) while Marco Rubio and Ted Cruz were in third and fourth place. This leads us to the question: is open derogation of minorities by a minority candidate a behavior that white voters may reward?
Although this question has not been addressed in the literature on racial attitudes and political behavior, related research suggests that this may be the case. Historical evidence going back to Booker T. Washington indicates that minorities and white ethnics have used this strategy to assimilate into the white mainstream (Ignatiev 2008; San Miguel 2000; Gaines and Reed 1994). Studies of social referencing show that minority group members are treated as “experts” when it comes to issues of prejudice and discrimination and rewarded when they don’t interpret behaviors as prejudicial (Crosby 2015; Crosby and Monin 2013). Perceived expertise is known to carry weight among message receivers (Oskamp and Schultz 2005). Similarly, causal attribution theory suggests that messages that carry a cost for the speaker or his/her in-group are deemed as more persuasive than those that are consistent with the speaker’s interests (Kelley 1973). There is also evidence that people respond differently to criticism when it comes from members of the in-group rather than out-group members (Hornsey and Imani 2004; Hornsey et al. 2004; Hornsey et al. 2002).
We posit that whites reward minority candidates who derogate their in-group or other marginalized out-groups. Egalitarian norms proscribe white Americans from expressing prejudicial attitudes and prevent whites from supporting blatantly racist politicians (Mendelberg 2001). However, plenty of research suggests that many whites harbor racial prejudice and it affects their behaviors and political preferences (Sears et al. 2000; Ditonto et al. 2013; Mendelberg 2001). We theorize that when a minority candidate expresses prejudicial views about a minority group, whites perceive this as validation of their own publicly suppressed beliefs. As a result, they are more likely to express affinity toward the candidate and agree with the prejudicial statement. Our experiments conducted on Amazon Turk with white respondents confirm that whites are likely to reward a minority candidate who derogates his in-group. Agreement with a derogatory statement about Black or Latino laziness and welfare dependence increased when the candidate was portrayed as Black. So did intent to vote and likeability ratings.

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