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2009 - ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting Pages: 49 pages || Words: 14717 words || 
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1. Woodson, Ben. "Anxiety and Motivated Reasoning - A Threat Based Cognitive Motivational Model of Motivated Reasoning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Jul 14, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370415_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The main hypothesis of this paper is that an increase in state and trait anxiety will cause an increase in motivated reasoning. A situation that increases state anxiety will increase motivated reasoning, and those people who are high on trait anxiety will have higher motivated reasoning at all times. The experiment to test this hypothesis will also test the effects of anger and positive affect on motivated reasoning, but the expected results and theory involving these two emotions has not been developed yet.

The cognitive-motivational model of anxiety and motivated reasoning is based on threat. The two basic forms of motivated reasoning tested in this paper – disconfirmation bias and confirmation bias – can be thought of as the avoidance of threat. The disconfirmation bias is when someone counter-argues against an attitude-incongruent argument or avoids the threat of that argument by diminishing its threatening nature. The confirmation bias is the tendency of people to read attitude-congruent arguments rather than attitude-incongruent argument. This is the avoidance of threat because the attitude-incongruent arguments are identified as a threat and then avoided by reading the attitude-congruent information. Anxiety will lead to an increase in both of these because an increase in anxiety increases the likelihood someone will identify a stimulus as a threat. When a stimulus is identified as a threat, the person then engages in motivated reasoning to “flee” the threat. The experiment that will be discussed in the paper will be conducted in March or April.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Coker, Calvin. and Jennings, Freddie. "Motivated Tweeting and Motivated Processing: Influencing Debate Viewership Through Twitter Instruction" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 25, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1234430_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Researchers have noted that individual processing of political media messages occurs through various filters of partisanship, interest, cynicism, and exogenous factors such as media frames. This phenomenon of motivated processing is, as of yet, understudied in the context of presidential debates. As major campaign events, presidential debates have been linked to significant increases in participant political knowledge, PIE, and changes in candidate evaluation. Individual information processing undetected by the extant literature on debates may influence these outcomes. As such, the present study proposes the capacity to manipulate processing of a political debate, as evidenced through engagement with social media. Researchers asked participants to tweet while watching presidential primary debates following three different sets instructions, approximating partisan motivated processing, accuracy motivated processing, and a control group who were simply asked to tweet their thoughts about the debate. The content of the tweets are presented, alongside survey data to determine if manipulating prompts to process the debate in a particular way had an impact on tweet frequency and content.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 1217 words || 
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3. Schillinger, Dawn. "Seducing Society: An Embodied Motivated Cognition Study in the Motivated Processing of Sexually Objectifying Content" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p986051_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In recent decades, there has been a proliferation of sexually objectifying advertisements. The Internet has become a venue for these explicit ads, making it easier to access this content. This content has potentially damaging implications for both society’s treatment of women and branding’s attempts to reach its consumer in a meaningful way. This study examines the differences in processing of advertisements with varying levels of sexually objectifying content between men and women. The study employs a 2 (Gender of participant: female vs. male) X 3 (Level of sexual objectification: high, medium, low) X 4 (Commercial, repeated measures) x 3 (Order) mixed repeated-measures design to uncover psychophysiological and self-reported differences in the viewing experience.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 9540 words || 
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4. Tamborini, Ron., Hahn, Lindsay., Prabhu, Sujay., Klebig, Brian., Grall, Clare. and Pei, Di. "The Importance of Altruistic Versus Egoistic Motivations: A Content Analysis of Conflicted Motivations in Children’s Television Programming" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p985350_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A content analysis of children’s media examined (1) decisions to follow altruistic versus egoistic motivations, (2) how these decisions were associated with both hero/villain characters and reward/punishment, and (3) how these associations differ in content produced for different age groups (2-5, 6-11, and 12-17 years old). Consistent with previous research (Lewis & Mitchell, 2014), we found that, across all age groups, most conflict representations in children’s media positioned altruistic and egoistic motivations against one another rather than against themselves. Extending this research, we found that (a) portrayal patterns stressed the importance of electing altruistic motivations over egoistic motivations, and (b) the focus on altruistic motivations diminished in programming for older children. The findings were interpreted in line with logic underlying the model of intuitive morality and exemplars (MIME; Tamborini, 2012) suggesting that media representations favor the portrayal of values consistent with cultural norms.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 11131 words || 
Info
5. Jones, Elizabeth. and Kline, Susan. "Modeling Motivational Support: A Conception and Test of Motivational Support Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p986143_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This investigation proposed a model of motivational support as a distinct functional communication activity. The model used self-determination, self-esteem, and emotion theories as its conceptual foundation. The model was tested in three separate studies within the weight management context for middle-aged and older adults. In Study 1 (N = 28), middle-aged and older adults participated in in-depth interviews concerning their perceptions of weight management-related communication. Findings from these interviews provided initial validation for the model. Study 2 (N = 123) used an experimental design to establish that constructed motivational support messages were realistic and systematically varied in levels of message quality. Study 3 (N = 415) used an experimental design to examine if high-quality motivational support messages were associated with increased perceptions of message effectiveness and motivational outcomes. Results indicated that high-quality motivational support messages were largely perceived as effective and motivating.

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