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2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 9277 words || 
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1. Brinson, Mary. "Muslims in the Media: The Impact of Varying Media Portrayals on Intergroup Relations and Boundary Permeability Between Muslims and Non-Muslims in America" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488815_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study investigates the effects of positive/negative media portrayals of Muslims on intergroup relations between Muslims (N=183) and non-Muslims (N=189). It analyzes how media frames impact both Muslim and non-Muslim Americans’ attitudes about each other. Further, it measures the media’s impact on Muslim perceptions regarding outgroup attitudes towards their ingroup and attitudes regarding permeability of intergroup boundaries. Participants viewed videos, either containing images of Muslims as integrated positive influences on society, or as threats to safety. Results indicated that varying portrayals significantly affect Muslim and non-Muslim attitudes about each other. It also found that Muslims exposed to positive ingroup portrayals were more likely to believe that Westerners hold favorable attitudes about their ingroup, and viewed societal boundaries as more permeable. This study has strong social implications in the advancement of understanding intergroup isolation and conflict – as well as advancement of intergroup theories related to variables that impact boundary permeability.

2007 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 161 words || 
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2. Kalkan, Kerem., Layman, Geoff. and Uslaner, Eric. "Are Muslims Just Another Outgroup? Assessing American Public Opinion Toward Muslims and Muslim Americans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, LA, Jan 03, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p142671_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Public opinion toward Muslims and the Islamic faith has become increasingly important not only because of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the ongoing American war efforts in the Middle East, but also because of the growing presence of Muslims in the American citizenry. However, very little is known about how the American public feels about Muslims and Muslim Americans or the factors shaping such feelings. In this paper, we use data from a nationwide survey by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press and from the 2004 National Election Study to assess the opinions that Americans hold of both Muslims and Muslim Americans and to examine the variables shaping such evaluations. We find that partisanship and ideology play a relatively minor role in determining these attitudes, while evaluations of Muslims and Muslim Americans are shaped substantially by evaluations of other cultural "outgroups," such as Atheists, gays and lesbians, African-Americans, and even Jews.

2011 - ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 250 words || 
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3. Yildiz, Aslan. and Verkuyten, Maykel. "‘Muslims in Europe’ or ‘European Muslims’: Integration and national identification from Muslim perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, <Not Available>. 2019-06-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p510877_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Abstract: Islam has increasingly become the centre of integration debates in Europe. The Western perception of Islam is dominated by Sharia, the lack of equality between men and women, and honor killings, and politicians portray Islam as an obstacle for the integration of Muslim immigrants. This paper presents the construction of an integrative Muslim identity by major Turkish Muslim organizations on the basis of discursive analyses of the written publications of these organizations and interviews with their leaders. Data were collected in the Netherlands and in Germany. The study shows that although there are clear differences between the organizations studied, there are only minor differences of discursive strategies used to construct an integrative Muslim identity. Thus, Muslim organizations define an integrative position by redefining identity content. Specifically, essentials of Islam and its historical experience are defined in congruity with Western values. Moreover, it is emphasized that Islam has a tradition of pluralism and is inherently democratic. In addition, Muslim organizations present themselves as mediators for integration by encouraging political participation, providing integration courses, and urging their members to be loyal to the country of residence. Their integration model is based on a strict separation between the identification with the host country and the nation. While the former is encouraged, the latter is assumed to mean assimilation. A Muslim individual may become a Dutch or German citizen but s/he can ‘never’ be a Dutch or German. ‘Muslims living in Germany/the Netherlands/Europe’ is the most commonly used concept to define Muslim immigrants.

2017 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 372 words || 
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4. Li, Ruiqian. "Is There Still the “Muslim-American Muddle”? — How Local Islamic Centers Shape Muslim-American Identity Different to National Muslim Organizations in the Trump Era" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Loews Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 09, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1299338_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In a 2011 article, Peter Skerry suggested a “Muslim-American Muddle” that suffers most Muslim Americans in the post-9/11 era that Muslim Americans’ political loyalty to the United States had been doubted. The failure to forge Muslim-American as a political identity by “overcoming the sources of division among the array of groups that comprise their community” reflects the complexity of the muddle. Is it still true on days after Trump’s election, and if it is, to what extent is it true? This is the question that this paper seeks to answer. It is an empirical research that I compare how national Islamist organizations, such as Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) and Council of American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), respond to Trump’s election by emphasizing on the threat of Islamophobia to their community and how local Islamic centers react to the argument institutionally. Data are collected in two groups. For national organizations, the data was collected during my two times of attending ISNA’s annual conventions in Chicago in September 2016 and June 2017 and my two times of attending it’s educational forums in March 2016 and April 2017. And for the local Islamic centers, the date was collected from my formal interviews with board members, Imams, and informal conversations with ordinary Muslims at 20 Islamic centers in the Greater Boston area.
My findings are threefold: 1. ISNA’s conventions show that ISNA has changed its strategy in interpreting “Muslim-American” by showing Muslims’ political allegiance to the United States; 2. Their main concern are still rising Islamophobia and violations of civil rights of Muslim-American as a religious minority group; 3. But ordinary Muslims and local Muslim leaders changed its interpretation on “Islamic identity” from that Islam is culture-free Islam to culture friendly. Local Islamic centers, on the one hand, are trying to keep their activities from political arguments, the leaders of local centers have accepted the argument of the culture-friendly Islamic identity and appeal to it oftener when interacting with local Muslim and non-Muslim communities after Trump’s election than before on the other. Based on the three findings, I argue that though the Muslim-American Muddle still poses a problem on national Islamist organizations, it is no longer true to local Islamic centers.

2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Pages: 25 pages || Words: 5705 words || 
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5. Butt, Muhammad-Khurram. "Examining the Nationalism-Cosmopolitanism Dimension of Global Governance in the Muslim World: A Role for Muslim Transnational Identity?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p501084_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Though often faced with skepticism, theories linking the rise of global governance to growing cosmopolitanism have nevertheless led to prolific analysis of the impact of global governance upon national identities. On the one hand, optimistic expression abounds heralding that humanity will eventually transcend national boundaries by moving towards a global culture and that the end of the nation-state is nigh. On the other hand, there is a distinct crosscurrent of doubt that questions whether the nation-state has been seriously weakened, and whether there is any evidence of an emerging “cosmopolitan identity” to replace nationalism. However, this debate takes on an interesting dimension of complexity when examined in the context of the Muslim world, where an added layer of transnational identity in the form of the "Muslim Ummah" is exhibited. In contemporary scholarship, the presence of transnationalism is often used as an indication of cosmopolitanism, and a linear positive correlation between the two is often implied. Utilizing data from the World Values Survey, this paper examines the nationalism-cosmopolitanism continuum in Muslim countries by analyzing the strength of national and cosmopolitan identities in these countries and the effect of transnational Muslim identity on the Muslim public’s cosmopolitan outlook

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