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2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7961 words || 
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1. Kim, Su Jung., Wang, Rebecca. and Malthouse, Edward. "How Negative is Negative Word-of-Mouth? The Effects of Posting and Viewing Online Negative Word-of-Mouth on Purchase Behaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p715097_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Previous studies on the effects of word-of-mouth (WOM) have rarely distinguished the effect of creating and reading WOM messages. This paper investigates how posting and viewing online negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) affect customers’ subsequent purchase behaviors. We also identify different types of negative emotions expressed in NWOM and examine their impact. Using a dataset that combines customers’ posting and viewing activities on the firm’s online forum and their purchase and redemption histories, we find the interaction effect between posting and redeeming to be positive, and viewing to be negative. Regarding emotions, anger has a negative effect, while concern has a positive effect. We propose an explanation for these findings, and discuss their implications and applications.

2009 - International Communication Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 8167 words || 
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2. Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian. "Beyond American Negativity: Dynamics of Negative Campaigning in a Multiparty System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p297895_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Negative campaigning is extensively analysed in American political science, but the concept has not been studied in a comparative perspective. Negativity, however, is not exclusively an American phenomenon; hence, the present study serves a dual purpose: First it aims to further develop and adapt the existing theories on the dynamics of negativity. Second it supplements the existing literature by exploring the dynamics of negativity in a multiparty system. By studying six different channels of party communication in four Danish national election campaigns it is shown that alternative government parties – in accordance with the existing theories – are more negative than incumbent parties, and that ideology is (indirectly) correlated with the campaign tone. As opposed to the existing literature, losing parties are not more negative than winning ones in this study. Next, the study proposes that a party’s proportion of party identified voters and its rhetorical tone is negatively correlated and that parties go negative on issues that they enjoy issue ownership of.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Fridkin, Kim. and Kenney, Patrick. "Negativity in Campaigns: Unpacking the Effectiveness of Negativity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2016 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1122982_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Reporters, political pundits, and politicians often decry the increasing negativity of election campaigns. Yet, we know negative campaigning is as old as the Republic. Still, since the Citizens United decision by the Supreme Court, the reach and scope of negative information during campaigns in the United States has increased markedly (Strasser, 2011). The preponderance of the evidence after 25 years of scholarship, though, suggests negative campaigning has only limited effects on citizens’ impressions of candidates (e.g., Lau et al. 1999; Lau, Sigelman, and Rovner 2007).

In this paper, we intend to advance and test a theory to explain when negative campaigning is effective. Building on our prior work (e.g., Fridkin and Kenney, 2011), we theorize that to understand when negativity is effective, we need to consider the tone (i.e., civility) and relevance of the negative messages. Furthermore, we argue people’s predispositions regarding the appropriate nature of political discourse will determine their receptivity to negative messages. In particular, people with low tolerance for negativity will be more likely to be affected by negative campaigning.

In our proposed paper, we rely on two sources of data. First, we utilize a nationally representative survey experiment where we expose respondents during a campaign to the text of actual advertisements aired during the election. We ask respondents to evaluate the relevance, civility, and effectiveness of each advertisement. We also ask these respondents a battery of questions to assess their tolerance to negativity. These survey questions are part of our module for the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES).

Second, we conducted an online Internet survey after the election where we exposed respondents to the political advertisements employed in the CCES study. In this second data collection effort, respondents view the actual advertisements and not simply the text of the advertisement. We ask respondents to evaluate the relevance, civility, and effectiveness of each advertisement and we also ask these respondents the battery of questions to assess their tolerance to negativity.

We intend to analyze these two data sources in order to explore how the content and tone of the negative advertisements interact with people’s level of intolerance. We theorize these interactions will influence: (1) people’s assessments of the advertisements; (2) respondents’ views of the effectiveness of the advertisements; and (3) citizens’ overall views of the campaign and politics generally. In this paper, by looking at citizens’ intolerance to negativity as well as exploring different dimensions of negativity, we hope to advance the literature regarding the impact of negative campaign information on voters’ attitudes.

2017 - 88th Annual SPSA Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Gomez, Katharine. "Negative Gains? Exploring the Effects of Negative Messages on Party Identification" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 88th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, Jan 11, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1202161_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the public’s professed dislike of negative political rhetoric and the possibility of backlash, politicians continue to employ this strategy to diminish their opponents and bolster their own views. Conceptualizing partisan identity as a form of social group attachment, this paper explores whether negativity can help politicians strengthen the support of their base constituents by activating feelings of group attachment. Social identity theory suggests that negative political messages should reinforce negative affect and bias for the out-group, while also stirring feelings of loyalty to the in-group. Using an original experiment, this study tests the role negative political messages play in stimulating feelings of partisan identity and affect for the aligned and opposing party. The results indicate that negative messages do influence strength of partisan identity, but not in the expected direction.

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