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2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7961 words || 
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1. Kim, Su Jung., Wang, Rebecca. and Malthouse, Edward. "How Negative is Negative Word-of-Mouth? The Effects of Posting and Viewing Online Negative Word-of-Mouth on Purchase Behaviors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, May 21, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p715097_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Previous studies on the effects of word-of-mouth (WOM) have rarely distinguished the effect of creating and reading WOM messages. This paper investigates how posting and viewing online negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) affect customers’ subsequent purchase behaviors. We also identify different types of negative emotions expressed in NWOM and examine their impact. Using a dataset that combines customers’ posting and viewing activities on the firm’s online forum and their purchase and redemption histories, we find the interaction effect between posting and redeeming to be positive, and viewing to be negative. Regarding emotions, anger has a negative effect, while concern has a positive effect. We propose an explanation for these findings, and discuss their implications and applications.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7021 words || 
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2. Vielehr, Peter. "Social Support and Social Negativity: Positive and Negative Family Relationships and Health" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p720857_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Social support is a beneficial social resource linked to improved mental and physical health outcomes. Limited sociological research has examined the effect of social negativity, though several psychologists have linked it to physical and mental health. Using longitudinal data of Miami-Dade County, this paper examines the reciprocal and cross-lagged effects between social support and social negativity, while also predicting self-rated health and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling is used to simultaneously predict multiple dependent variables. The findings indicate that social negativity is detrimental to both health outcomes while social support is beneficial. Further, across time, social support predicts lower negativity at time two and social negativity predicts lower support at time two. The constructs are not reciprocally related at time two. Higher support predicts lower negativity but negativity does not predict support. The results suggest a theoretically complex, yet important, relationship between positive and negative social ties and health.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Fridkin, Kim. and Kenney, Patrick. "Negativity in Campaigns: Unpacking the Effectiveness of Negativity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1122982_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Reporters, political pundits, and politicians often decry the increasing negativity of election campaigns. Yet, we know negative campaigning is as old as the Republic. Still, since the Citizens United decision by the Supreme Court, the reach and scope of negative information during campaigns in the United States has increased markedly (Strasser, 2011). The preponderance of the evidence after 25 years of scholarship, though, suggests negative campaigning has only limited effects on citizens’ impressions of candidates (e.g., Lau et al. 1999; Lau, Sigelman, and Rovner 2007).

In this paper, we intend to advance and test a theory to explain when negative campaigning is effective. Building on our prior work (e.g., Fridkin and Kenney, 2011), we theorize that to understand when negativity is effective, we need to consider the tone (i.e., civility) and relevance of the negative messages. Furthermore, we argue people’s predispositions regarding the appropriate nature of political discourse will determine their receptivity to negative messages. In particular, people with low tolerance for negativity will be more likely to be affected by negative campaigning.

In our proposed paper, we rely on two sources of data. First, we utilize a nationally representative survey experiment where we expose respondents during a campaign to the text of actual advertisements aired during the election. We ask respondents to evaluate the relevance, civility, and effectiveness of each advertisement. We also ask these respondents a battery of questions to assess their tolerance to negativity. These survey questions are part of our module for the 2014 Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES).

Second, we conducted an online Internet survey after the election where we exposed respondents to the political advertisements employed in the CCES study. In this second data collection effort, respondents view the actual advertisements and not simply the text of the advertisement. We ask respondents to evaluate the relevance, civility, and effectiveness of each advertisement and we also ask these respondents the battery of questions to assess their tolerance to negativity.

We intend to analyze these two data sources in order to explore how the content and tone of the negative advertisements interact with people’s level of intolerance. We theorize these interactions will influence: (1) people’s assessments of the advertisements; (2) respondents’ views of the effectiveness of the advertisements; and (3) citizens’ overall views of the campaign and politics generally. In this paper, by looking at citizens’ intolerance to negativity as well as exploring different dimensions of negativity, we hope to advance the literature regarding the impact of negative campaign information on voters’ attitudes.

2017 - 88th Annual SPSA Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Gomez, Katharine. "Negative Gains? Exploring the Effects of Negative Messages on Party Identification" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 88th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, Jan 11, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1202161_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the public’s professed dislike of negative political rhetoric and the possibility of backlash, politicians continue to employ this strategy to diminish their opponents and bolster their own views. Conceptualizing partisan identity as a form of social group attachment, this paper explores whether negativity can help politicians strengthen the support of their base constituents by activating feelings of group attachment. Social identity theory suggests that negative political messages should reinforce negative affect and bias for the out-group, while also stirring feelings of loyalty to the in-group. Using an original experiment, this study tests the role negative political messages play in stimulating feelings of partisan identity and affect for the aligned and opposing party. The results indicate that negative messages do influence strength of partisan identity, but not in the expected direction.

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